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|«Moskvich» - now-defunct Moscow automobile plant. It produced cars of the brands «KIM» and «Moskvich». The plant was declared bankrupt. |
Founded in 1930, has actually stopped production of cars in 2001, formally abolished in 2010.
Territorially was located on the territory of modern South-Eastern JSC Moscow, near metro station «Tekstilshchiki».
The historical names of the plant: the Moscow car Assembly plant named KIM (from 1930 to 1939); the Moscow automobile plant named after KIM (from 1939 until the great Patriotic war); the Moscow plant of small cars - ZMA or МЗМА (c 1945 to 1968); Automobile plant named after Lenin Komsomol - AZLK (from 1968 till 1992); JSC «Moskvich» (from 1992 until 2010); JSC «Moskvich» (from 2010)
The history of the enterprise
The activity of the factory began in November 1930, and came to the Assembly of passenger cars and trucks Ford.
Until 1933, the year the plant produced cars A Ford and Ford AA. In December 1930 by decree of the all-Union tractor Association of plant became known as the «National Assembly plant behalf of the Communist international Youth» - KIM.
In 1933, the plant became a branch of GAS and goes on Assembly of cars GAZ-A and GAZ-AA.
In 1939, the plant becomes a crucial part of Глававтопрома, and receives the name of «the Moscow automobile plant named after KIM. » At this time, specially for the power plant KIM developed a compact car KIM-10.
In 1940 the plant started the production of this model. In parallel modifications have been developed KIM-10-51 Phaeton and KIM-10-52 - four-door sedan.
With the beginning of the great Patriotic war the plant was reoriented to the production of military products.
The first post-war years
In may 1945, the resolution of the Council of people's Commissars of the USSR on the deployment of the construction of the automobile plant on production of small cars «Moskvich». The plant was renamed into «Plant of small cars» (ZMA), later - «Moscow plant of small cars» (МЗМА).
In 1947, there was started a serial production of passenger cars «Moskvich-400». This model was developed on the basis of the German Opel cadet» of 1938, and was produced in part on the captured equipment (the degree of its use is still a matter of controversy among historians).
In 1948, began production полудеревянного of the van, and in 1949 - and cabriolet on the basis of the «Moskvich-400».
In 1954 saw the light of the upgraded car «Moskvich-401». The fifties and sixties
The most successful in the history of the plant were the second half of the fifties and sixties. In this period, the model number of plant updated every few years, «Muscovites» developed export markets and international racing tracks. It is the period from 1957 to 1967, the МЗМА worked subsequently the well-known journalist and historian of Motorsport lion Шугуров.
In 1956 started production of a new «Moskvich-402», and already in July 1958 was held its modernization, in the course of which he received a new overhead valve engine, assembled on the basis of расточенного the old block, but with the new aluminum cylinder head. The new version has the index of «Moskvich-407». On these cars in 1958 the factory team made its debut at the international sport routes. In addition to the base sedans, serially produced modification with bodies of «universal» (the first in the country) and «van», and also - wheel-drive version of the «Moskvich-410».
During this period, the МЗМА actively experimental design work. So there were outdoor sports «Moskvich-404» accelerated четырехкарбюраторным 60-strong engine, coupe on the basis of «Moskvich-402», racing track «formula,» in which the factory racers not time became the Champions of the country. Were even work on creation of this car «Formula-1» for international competitions.
In the late fifties, when passed to the issue of the «407-th», in parallel created and tested two series of SUV cars «Moskvich-415».
Interesting project in the van «Moskvich A9» - восьмиместного car with nodes «Muscovites» «407» and «410», created on the instructions of the Ministry of automobile industry of the USSR and of the relevant Department of the state planning Committee. Prototype was assembled in the summer of 1958.
However, the production capacity of the plant remained fairly modest. To the beginning of the sixties, the plant was forced to curtail work on many promising projects - there was no financial reserves, no equipment, no space for their production, while the «top» is constantly entering the Directive on increasing output of which demand abroad basic models. For the sake of increasing production of export modifications had to be abandoned and the all-wheel drive variants of the sedan and station wagon, and from the utilitarian «jeeps», and for the minibus. Created on МЗМА, in the late fifties микролитражный «Moskvich-444» was put into series not in Moscow, and the reconstructed Zaporozhye plant, previously выпускавшем a variety of agricultural machinery (see. ZAZ-965).Nevertheless, the rate of renewal of production models remained high.
Barely mastered in 1962 considered to be a «transition» to a more perfect structure model «Muscovite 403» with the old body, deeply upgraded chassis and «подновленным» engine on the basis of the aggregate of «Moskvich-407», already in 1964 the plant launched a series of «Moskvich-408», which was absolutely new, stylish and quite modern for those years of the body. Given the pace of development of the plant and the emergence of its new models, in those years, it is unlikely that someone could assume, that based on «408-m» on the back of the cars will be issued until the mid-nineties.
Such a policy of the gradual introduction of new units and assemblies through the «transition» model, without a radical restructuring of production facilities, with more modest opportunities МЗМА compared with, for example, the Gorky automobile plant, which in those years, could afford to build cars from scratch, almost without borrowing technical solutions with the previous generation of«Volga» GAZ-21 in respect of «Victory», «Chaika» GAZ-13 concerning Winters-a).
The M-408 was a «transition model»: a new body, he kept the archaic нижневальный motor, which, although developed in a new modification of the worthy at the time 50 h.p., but, all the same, the roots go back in the thirties, and strongly demanded to change.
It was created from the beginning of the sixties - the factory actively been working on a completely new 1,5-litre цельноалюминиевому engine, conceived as a base for numerous modifications of the working volume of 1.5 to 2 litres. In October 1967, they were crowned with the launch of a series of models «Moskvich-412», which won the comparative success on foreign markets, and in international sports competitions.
«Moskvich-412» and «Moskvich-408» were produced in parallel. After the development of the «412-th» motor production could not provide new engines-the entire volume of the produced at AZLK cars, moreover, in rural areas with poor roads and a poorly developed services «408 " I» model was preferred as a more easy to repair and less demanding to the quality of fuel and lubricants.
The production of motor model «412» because of the workload of the МЗМА it was soon decided to move to Ufa plant of aircraft engines. In those years, hardly anyone could predict what kind of problems will transfer engine production outside the enterprise, which is subordinate to another Ministry.
In December 1969, both models got rectangular headlights instead of the round front. And the vertical lights in the rear of the vehicle have been replaced by horizontal.
In may 1967, with conveyor came down millionth car «Moskvich», he became the «Moskvich-408».Unfortunately, not led to the emergence of serial models made in the mid-1960s, the МЗМА the development of a sports coupe-cabriolet «Tourist» on the basis of «Moskvich-408», which potentially could significantly strengthen the export positions of the brand.
Was not approved and launched in the second half of the fifties line of unique all-wheel drive cars «Moskvich» for rural areas. However, already in the seventies, some time was the so-called «rural» modification «Moskvich-21406» on the basis of the car «Moskvich-2140», which had дефорсированный to work on low-octane gasoline motor and reinforced by the body and suspension, but, of course, she would never was a full-fledged replacement of four-wheel drive SUV. Was not established and the issue developed at the МЗМА utilitarian «jeeps» Moskvich-415».
In 1966 came the governmental resolution on the reconstruction of МЗМА, which started in 1968. In its course were put into operation completely new production branch pipelines, working on the technology, пролицензированной the French company Renault and built with the participation of its specialists. In parallel was put into operation and the plant in Izhevsk, also used the technology of Renault. Both factories were calculated on the issue of up to 200 thousand cars a year.
In October 1968, the plant received a new name: instead of the former, practical and utilitarian «Moscow plant of small cars» (МЗМА) - convoluted and overly pretentious, in the spirit of the epoch, " «Automobile plant named after Lenin Komsomol» (AZLK).
Meanwhile, the reconstructed plant lasted issue of the obsolete «408-th of the» family and rapidly устаревавшего «Moskvich-412», although in a «подновленных» cars.
The seventies and eighties
In September 1971, the production Association «Auto-Moskvich».
Work on the model of the successor «408-th» and «412-th» was conducted in the spring of 1967 under the name of «3-5», which meant the years, which has been scheduled for the staging of a new car in production - 1973 to 1975.
By the time it has signed a contract with «Fiat», which envisaged the construction in the city of Togliatti plant, designed for the mass production of the licensed version of the model Fiat 124 - the same class as the «Moskvich-412», but surpassing its technically and comfort.
To produce two models of this class in the sectoral Ministry considered unnecessary, as a result of a new family of «Muscovites» should be significantly larger and nicer compared with «M-412» or future VAZ-AMI, and occupy the top group of small... the lowest group of the middle class, that is, to be in the character of Soviet cars in size and литражу approximately in the middle between models of «VAZ», «Volga». As the power unit was planned to apply engine variants of the model «412» with increased displacement of 1.6 1.8 l....Such machines are not only have good option spacious and relatively comfortable family car. But also could be used in a taxi as a more economical and cheap to operate an alternative to the products of the Gorky plant. In addition, in those years, cars of this size group received widespread in the West, that has promised a good inflow of foreign currency from export sales. In other words, the practical effect of the decision on issue of such cars could be considerable.
However, for a number of reasons for its production had not yet begun.
The main project of the Soviet passenger automobile those years was the WHA. In addition to the construction of a «giant factory», a lot of resources devoted to that «teach» «Fiat» to ride on the Russian roads. For the demanding to consumable materials and built under quite different from those adopted in the USSR the standards of the European model required the development and the production of a fundamentally new supplies that to the limit нагрузило enterprises of the automobile and related industries. In addition, in Togliatti, where workers were offered good conditions and given the apartment, left the young, the most valuable and relevant experts from all over the Union, including - and AZLK.
Absorbing a huge number of human resources, the plant was back-breaking burden for the Soviet automobile. As a result, the financing of other projects in the sector was reduced, and the timeframe of their implementation significantly tightened. In their number and the model number of the «Muscovites». Return same to the construction of the Volga plant appeared much later, it is only since the mid-seventies, when the Italians withdrew from the production model is a prototype of the first VAZ, «Fiat 124», and Togliatti was able to with her, by that time was already obsolete model break into the world market, having started in some way justify the enormous costs of its creation.
Summed up AZLK and subcontractors: who was in charge of «неавтомобильного» of the Ministry of Ufa plant refused to change anything in the construction of «412-th motor, referring to the real or imaginary technological problems - in particular, Ufa refused to produce 1.8-liter engine, vital for perspective models of «Moskvich», with the words «limited capacity of the equipment for processing of crankshafts». Data version of the engine were created only much later, after the transition to a market economy, when the engine TIES was hopelessly outdated.
In September 1973 in the city of Kineshma, Ivanovo region has opened a branch AZLK.
Finally «buried» the project «big Muscovites» the confusion and «personnel reshuffle» in the plant, which began in 1974, following the retirement of Chief designer of the AZLK Alexander Andronov, and then - the chief artist Boris Ivanov.Meanwhile, at the plant this period is remembered as «the rare creative freedom». It was in these years to replace the time to be out of date even before the start of its production models of the family «3-5» on tracing designers and плазах designers came perspective «Muscovites» series «C» - vehicles with a modern and dynamic, while «сыроватым», design and fully corresponding to the time of the technical «stuffing» - including, independent rear suspension and front type «McPherson». It was in this period the plant was finally created a separate design service - 3 August 1976. And in those same years, the AZLK decided to «reanimate» the project of the SUV Moskvich-416 development of the fifties, having created on its base of a potential competitor VAZ Niva - Moskvich-2150 (more experimental samples of the matter, however, does not matter).
Meanwhile, the conveyor at that time continued to go outdated development model beginning-middle of the sixties, in the minimum подновленном the form of, " what's more, the lack of relatively modern engines model UZAM-412 compelled to complete part of the cars for the domestic market ancient «408-mi» aggregates. In 1974 with the chief of the plant conveyor came a two million-strong car «Moskvich», he was a model of «Moskvich-412». Old cars already could not withstand competition with foreign models, developed in the late sixties - early seventies, and therefore, for all of the seventies «Muscovites» consistently left with only just mastered the foreign exchange markets; however, even by Soviet standards, these models, the technical basis of which was developed at the turn of the fifties and sixties, in many respects inferior to the products and vases, which led to their decline in popularity.
Therefore, in 1975, it became clear that the conveyor production of samples to series «3-5» will not, at the plant was started work on the updating of the current range. The result has been a model of «Moskvich-2138» (former «408») and «Moskvich-2140» (former «412»).
Modernized vehicles really better and in a more-or-less equal in quality the products of VAZ, but only at the cost of delaying the publication of really promising new model. The effect of considerable investments in the modernization of the (only one the development of the interior for an export version of the 2140SL, commissioned by the Atelier of the well known American industrial designer Raymond Loewy, the cost of the plant in 80 thousand of dollars, which corresponds approximately to 300 thousands of modern USD) were very low: «Moskvich-2140» it is originally was not sufficiently competitive in the external markets.
Worse, the race for the increase in production volumes at AZLK led to a significant drop in the quality of components, painting and Assembly, which became noticeable to consumers even on the domestic market, and the fact they just with the development of a new model. As a result of the first well-known on the world market brand «Moskvich» literally within a few months 1976-1977 years has lost its competitive position: further mass export of «Moscow-2140» was possible almost exclusively within the CMEA and the «third world»countries.Meanwhile, the band «creative freedom» was completed with the advent of the plant management team with ZIL in the autumn of the same 1976. Having only a vague idea of the passenger automobile, the new leaders began to search for the finished foreign models with proven technology, by analogy with VAZ. Didn't find it, which forced the leadership of the newly turn to their own development. The result was the emergence, оценивавшегося as «предсерийный», заднеприводного prototype «p-3».
However, by this time in the sectoral Ministry has already been decided that the new model of «Moskvich» should be front-drive. The project «p-3» «put the cross» personally the Minister of the automotive industry of Poles " by the way, the former Director of vases, while at the Ministerial post invariably лоббировавший the interests of «their» plant.
The transition to переднеприводную scheme does not only mean forgetting a huge work on development and improvement of experienced rear wheel drive series «3-5» and «With», but even greater delay renewal of the model range AZLK - exactly one cycle of development «from scratch» model, built on a completely unfamiliar plant scheme, which required a vast amount of research and development work.
The work took almost ten years, and to accelerate the development of required hiring as the prototype of a foreign car - Franco-American model Simca 1308. According to the version of the chief designer AZLK those years. Zaitseva, this prototype was imposed on the branch Ministry, and according to the General designer Tkachenko - elected by the plant as a «mule», media units for the new model because of the lack of cars of such class in the practice of the domestic automobile. Either way, the result of these works was the «Moskvich-2141», has arisen out of a series of only in 1986 and for the first time in the history of the plant has received the «own name», «ALEKO»/ «ALEKO» (an abbreviation of «Automobile plant named after Lenin Komsomol»). Features taken for a prototype «Симки» easily discernible in the appearance and design of the body of the car, as part of the aggregate except for the motor (which were used outdated models - TIES-331.10 on the basis of «412-th» and VAZ-2106, which was a further development of engine VAZ-2101) strongly drawn to the cars the group VAG (Volkswagen-Audi), up to a complete or partial interchangeability of certain parts of the chassis.
Переднеприводный «the forty first» was initially conceived as a large family cars with a body «sedan», «universal», «VIN», «van» and a minibus, all with variants of the transmission to the front and a full drive. Under these plans was based entirely new production with the use of the so-called «flexible technologies» (to do on one line different, although close to the characteristics of the details), a high degree of automation and a wide use of industrial robots. It was believed that such production will allow to change the model once in three-five years - at the level close to the pace of the update of the model series of the leaders of the world market of cars.
Most of these plans was never destined to come true. Purchased abroad unique production equipment for the most part it remains still in packaging boxes, and was subsequently «lost».In the eighties, the plant received a loan to purchase equipment for the production of two-wheel drive models. Progressive debts, then repeatedly anxiety increased and enlarged Bank VTB many times under the pretext of «default» (1998), became one of the main «stone», stretching plant to the bottom in the course of his subsequent history.
Began construction of own motor-building plant and the development of the family of the new unified engines for a family of «2141», including diesel engines, which was never completed in full. As a result, переднеприводный «Moskvich», «temporarily» launched on obsolete motors models UZAM-331.10 and VAZ-2106, and did not wait own modern power unit, which became one of the main factors, which influenced the failure of the car.
If we add to this, that all this time the conveyor of the plant went outdated models «2140» and «2138» (production of the «Muscovites» model «2140» lasted until 1988), the race for the production volumes continued - 25 August 1980 the Assembly line came down three-million-dollar car «Moskvich», which belonged to the model of «Moskvich-2140», and on September 17, 1986 appeared already to four-million «Moskvich», and thus in 1984, 90 % of the plant's products remained at the sites of finished products, " it becomes clear, that already in the the Soviet time «Moskvich» was in a very difficult situation.
New peredneprivodnaya model for some time revived the demand for the external and domestic markets, lifted prestige of products AZLK. However, she's been having problems with the build quality and corrosion resistance, which quickly reduced her in the rating of preferences of Russian motorists below two-wheel drive models VAZ, despite the fact that the original vision of «Moskvich» was the car of higher class and cost initially it is more expensive in comparison with the cars of the family Lada Samara». The massive exports'll also had to forget.
The nineties and 2000 - е years
In the early nineties, AZLK remained one of the largest automotive enterprises of the USSR. Conducted design-and-experimental works on creation of the vehicles and the construction of a new engine factory. In the short term was preparing for the batch production of sedan M-2142.
However, with the collapse of the USSR and the incurred in connection with this economic mess plant was in a state of crisis.
Due to its location the plant is in a more vulnerable position in comparison with enterprises located in other regions: the price of the accommodation and the production in Moscow began to rapidly grow.
In 1996, his conveyor for the first time stood up. The attempt of the Moscow government to revive production at the plant, ultimately, did not succeed. In the same year, the General Director of JSC «Moskvich» became Ruben Asatryan, the work of the team which many consider one of the main reasons for the failure of the business.
Modernized vehicle of «Svyatogor», produced in 1997-2001 years, although it has been improved in a number of the most problematic components and units (replaced imported), by the beginning of 2000-ies is morally outdated; in addition, the use of imported components (which in the cost price of the car were more than 50 after the default of 1998 has made its production is economically unprofitable. Costs per unit produced «Muscovite» products, according to the magazine «Behind the wheel», in the end of the nineties came to about 136 kopecks. According to statements of the municipal authorities, the difference in 36 cents on the car was compensated «from the city budget» (the plant belonged to the state by about 60 %), that is, the production of the «Muscovites» in fact proved to be subsidized.
The build quality when it fell to a level that new cars are delivered in разукомплектованном form, the buyer had to дособирать own forces or with the help of proliferated small «garage» firms - however, the model of «Svyatogor» with the engine «Reno» F3R still remained unique in terms of price and consumer qualities of supply on the domestic car market. The territory of the plant was filled недособранными cars that stood in the open air in anticipation of spare parts, and turn on the performance of judicial claims from their own employees and customers in respect of JSC «Moskvich» extended for the next 8-10 years.
Work on the creation of prospective car Moskvich-2143, Moscow-2144 and Moskvich-2139 practically stopped, replaced by a new concept of the management of the plant, предполагавшей transition to мелкосерийный issue of expensive cars of business class segment (E) on the platform Moskvich-2141/ Moskvich-2142 - Yuri Dolgoruky, the Prince of Vladimir», «Kalita» and «Duet».
This program is quite natural suffered a complete failure, as the enterprise, intended for issue of hundreds of thousands of mass car, could not cover their costs at the expense of occasional sales of small-scale «suites», in addition created on an obsolete platform непрестижного mass of the vehicle.
In 2001 the plant, releasing the last complete cars, finally stood up.In the following years, all technological equipment, technological documentation and even the infrastructural equipment of the enterprise, in spite of the entered external management, have been completely lost.
In 2006, OAO «Moskvich» was officially declared bankrupt.
The importation of the active fleet of cars «Moskvich» spare parts are currently engaged in the former subcontracting Moscow and some small businesses that use residues of plant equipment, as well as the St.Valentine clubs fans of the brand «Moskvich».
A considerable part of the territory of JSC «Moskvich» (former unfinished plant engines) in 1998 joined the JV CJSC «Avtoframos», is currently engaged in a full - welding, painting, stamping (from the foreign metal) body - the Assembly of Renault cars Renault Logan and Sandero.
In 2009 is expected to be the final transition to the «Автофрамосу» the former territory of the OAO «Moskvich» with the purpose of expansion of manufacture of cars Renault Logan and Sandero up to 160 thousand per year.
In September 2010, completed the procedure of bankruptcy. On the application of the competitive factory Manager Alexander Ivanov, the plant was fully repaid debts on salary, as well as paid compensation for damage to health and compensation for moral damages. Creditors received 18% of invested in production facilities.
Originally cars Moskvich-2141 it was planned to complete the petrol engines «AZLK-21415» (1.8 litre, 8 valve), «AZLK-21416» (1.8 liter, 16 valves), and turbo-diesel «AZLK-21413». With the purpose of production of own engine, in the late 80's at AZLK was started the construction of the engine plant (site SMEs-3), and on its construction was taken large loan. In 1991, the engine plant was ready by 90 percent, however, the USSR ceased to exist, and with him stopped and public funding.
Own engines plant to produce so and has not begun. Equipped with obsolete engines «VAZ-2106» and «UZAM-3310» - «UZAM-3317», «Muscovites» looked more pale in comparison with the competitors, the reputation of the car falling, the company's financial situation deteriorated. In 1996 the plant stopped, the question arose about its bankruptcy. In 1997 the plant was taken by the Government of Moscow, in trust management. The former management of the plant, headed by its Director Yuri Borodin was sent in the resignation, the Director of the AZLK became Asatryan Ruben. To raise the technical level and the consumer qualities of automobiles Muscovite, it was decided to provide them with engines «Reno». However, after the 1998 default and devaluation of the ruble - buy imported engines became unprofitable. Production difficulties, mistakes by management, the drop in demand on the background of the crisis, the total economic turmoil in the country and the absence of Mature financial mechanisms has led to the logical end, the plant stopped its existence.
Despite repeated financial injections from the municipal budget, in the autumn of 2001 the Assembly of complete vehicles and, in 2002, and the production of spare parts for the plant of JSC «Moskvich» was stopped in connection with the actual bankruptcy of the enterprise. Legally the plant was declared bankrupt on February 28, 2006. As at the date of the accounts payable of the enterprise was 23, 3 billion roubles. In December of 2006 year was held for sale at auction of the territory and property of the plant. The new owner, the financial group Metropol plans to the so-called old territory (former plant МЗМА), to build office and residential buildings, as part of the «new territories» (former factory of AZLK) sell for expansion of Assembly facilities of OAO «Avtoframos». Thus, by 2007, OAO «Moskvich» ceased its existence.
OAO «Avtoframos» in 1998, bought the unfinished shop engines AZLK, which in 2005 was deployed screwdriver (SKD), and later in-depth (CKD) Assembly of cars «Renault Logan». In 2011, «Avtoframos» expanded the capacity of its production to 75 000 up to 160 000 vehicles.
At the present time «Avtoframos» expands its production capacity from 160 000 to 175 000 cars in a year. The Avtoframos in 3 shifts produce: Logan (the whole range of engines and complete sets) and Сандеро (the whole range of engines and complete sets), a modification of Сандеро Степвей (the only package contents and the only engine) with increased to 20 mm ground clearance, as well as Megan and Fluence. In November 2011 was launched in the production of «Dacia Duster» - budget crossover on the platform Logan. The new model is named the leader of Renault in Russia and that it is associated with great hopes Renault to increase its share of the car market.
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