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Moskvich-402 - Soviet passenger car of a small class, produced at Moscow plant of small cars (МЗМА) from 1956 to 1958, released 87 658 copies together with the modifications.

History of creation
The predecessor of «Moskvich-402», published by the end of 1946, «Moskvich-400 / 401», was recreated on the basis of the USSR the reparation of the residues of the equipment and the working documentation of the pre-war Opel cadet K38, who was in the series since 1937. In Germany at the same time, from 1947 to 1953 (with modernization in 1949-50), was produced model of the same family - the Opel Olympia, with the same body, but with the «аллигаторным» the hood and more powerful верхнеклапанным engine (1488 cm3, 37 h.p.). Thus, the first model of «Moskvich», even taking into account the conducted the Soviet side works on modernization over the issue " increase of capacity of the engine, installation gearbox with подрулевым lever instead of the floor and other improvement - on characteristics of the initially inferior to the German post-war «cousin» «Olympia», which in and of itself even in those times, the best was by no means. Yes and purely visually car with a pre-war conservative body with the wings and landing foot already in the end of the forties looked far not the best way not only against the background of new foreign models, but also in comparison with more advanced Soviet «Victory» GAZ M-20.
Therefore, already in 1950, work has begun on a new car with «pontoon» body, which was, in accordance with the decisions taken in those years in the EIA procedure of the nomenclature of models, the designation of «402-425» - engine model «402» in the body of a model «425». Subsequently, for the base of the car «Moskvich-402» designation of the body is used only in the design documentation, but its modification - universal M-423 and four-wheel drive variants of the M-410 and M-411 - called as it is for designations of their bodies.
The chief designer was Alexander Fedorovich Andronov. He managed to organize a relatively small collective of the plant for the creation of a fundamentally new design of the car in comparison with the who in the production of «Moscow-400/ 401» - from the previous model he had kept, and in the modified form, only the engine, gearbox and the rear of the bridge. Because of the lack of experience of the staff of the plant, in the design of the car actively participated the members of the collectives of other automobile enterprises of the USSR. With the Gorky plant were invited to B. Dr.. Kirsanov, L. And. Belkin, Yu. M. Nemtsov, with the ZIS - And. A. Gladilin, With. Dr.. Чуразов, And. M. Zherjadin To. And. Faibisovich. In addition, with Moscow motorcycle plant at its ZMA plant moved designer of engines And. And. Okunev. The participation of specialists from the GAS had a strong influence on проектирующийся car, and given the fact that at the same time the GAS underway development and preparation of the production of the new model of the middle class, «Volga», GAZ-21 " don't look surprising that the «Moskvich» adopted from her many elements of its design. This visual similarity as if emphasized that the Soviet road comes a new generation of passenger cars.
The first prototypes of the new «Moskvich» were ready already in 1951. To get acquainted with the samples of the foreign automotive and joint comparative tests as the design and finishing of the ZMA plant were acquired production models of foreign cars - Italian Fiat-1100 (1953-1962) and Lancia Aurelia (1950-1958), French Simca Aronde (1951-64) and Citroen 2CV (1948-1990), British Hillman Minx(1948-1956), Ford Consul (1951-1956) and Jovett Javelin (1947-1953), German Ford Taunus 12M (1952-1962) - part of them was captured on joint photos with serial and experienced «Muscovites» during one of the test runs (foreign cars in the background, the serial «Moscow-400» № 8). Naturally, none of them was used as a prototype in «pure form», but an examination of their design has largely helped to choose those or other technical and stylistic solutions for which it is quite original design and the design of new models of «Moskvich». 

Vehicle production
According to the developed plans of the Gorky automobile plant (if not the only one in the country in those years, which had its own facilities for the production of stamps and press-forms) were produced stamps. From отштампованных on him trial panels in the process of re-treatment were collected seven experienced instances of «402-425», различавшихся the details of the design - in particular, the form of below the gutter and the technologies of the production of the roof (some had a plot «drain» on the frontal glass, as the GAZ-21) and facings of the radiator (in particular, one of the options is very reminiscent of the lining, which went into serial production of «Volga» - «with a star», with the difference that the «Moskvich» the star of the missing, and «services» above the main bar was one instead of two in the GAZ-21). One of the three experienced «Muscovites-402»passed the state tests in February 1955, was exhibited at the exhibition of economic achievements. The first serial copy was released on April 20, 1956.
. After the comparative analysis, the designers of the МЗМА stopped at the Ford model «Consul» as to the most suitable car for use in our country.
This vehicle was produced by the British branch of the Ford Foundation from 1951 until the 1962 when the «Consul» on the conveyor changed his heir Ford Zephyr». The engine of this car had a working volume of 1508 cubic cm and developed the capacity of 47 HP.Our designers will be copied and the engine, but as soon as they presented the volume of the work on the translation of drawings in metric measures, the abandoned this idea and found it sufficient wasted cylinders up to 72 mm diameter, having received the 1221,45 cubic cm. The power of the 402-th - the index gave subsequently, the new vehicle is increased, thus, to 35 horsepower. Of course, no 47, as the «Consul», but not 26 as that of his predecessor, 401-century Muscovite.
As for the body, there was taken as the basis appearance of «Consul». However, it was not a direct copy. So, «the Consul» had long 4,1656 m, and «Moskvich 402» - 4,055. Even more different width. If the «Consul» had a wide 1,6256 m, the 402 - only 1,54. Thus, it should be stated that the designers don't slizali body with wax prototype, and only used it as a visual aid for house construction. And if the 400-th «Moskvich» was an exact replica of the German pre-war «Cadet», the 402 was a Soviet car, outwardly similar to the British «Consul». 
The design of the body for МЗМА-402 began in November 1950, and is already in the summer of 1951, the first prototype was ready. Many of the elements of his design for the first time have found application in the Soviet automotive industry: curved glass, telescopic shock absorbers, бесшкворневая suspension of the front wheels, двухспицевое steering колесо. locked from inside of the tailgate, the gearbox with an extension. МЗМА-402 had a separate Luggage compartment, access to which was carried out outside of the vehicle, and not from within, as on the M-400 401/ 
For the first time on a vehicle of this class has been set радиоприемник. the latter played an important role in the promotion of the machine to the market in Western Europe. In addition to the receiver МЗМА-402 was equipped with a heater with противообледенителем windshield (last model of the heater did not have), the direction indicators of rotation with самовозвратом switch located on the steering column.
In General, the pace of development and serial development of the model were high enough, especially in light of the very limited capacity of the МЗМА - as already noted, even stamps for the body had to make on the side of the enterprise.
The car is very modern appearance, constructively more hard - and hence more durable, significantly more spacious and comfortable inside compared to its predecessor body. It had a separate Luggage compartment, access to which was carried out outside of the vehicle, and not from within, as on the M-400 / 401, and the boot lid had a remote drive from the lever in the passenger compartment, curved windscreen and rear window, a fairly high level of interior decoration, was equipped with a heater with противообледенителем windshield (last model of the heater did not have), the direction indicators of rotation with самовозвратом located on the top housing of the steering column switch (M-400 / 401 поворотников from the factory did not have), radio (not often met in the basic configuration, even on foreign cars of this class). The design was quite simple and utilitarian, but at the moment it is quite modern. The new «Muscovite» has received the independent бесшкворневую front suspension with double wishbone instead of шкворневой independent подвеки type «Дюбонне» the M-400 / 401, having a trailing arms, 15 inch rim wheels instead of the 16-inch, drum brakes with floating pads, 12 volt electrical equipment instead of the outdated and no more than a 6-volt u M-400 / 401, for the first time in the country - the telescopic shock absorbers. Rear axle with негипоидными gears and three-stage gearbox at this stage have been inherited from the previous model, but the box has received an extension cable, allowing to shorten the PTO drive shaft and reduce the level of vibration.However, along with these advanced solutions in the design of much of the archaic. So, the engine was still нижнеклапанным, while maintaining, as a consequence, a low level of compression. The нижнеклапанной design was in those years a lot of followers, as in the US, and directly on the plants, including the МЗМА. For a substantiation of this commitment they have two theses. The first of them consisted in the fact that the top arrangement of valves makes the engine more noisy and less reliable. Indeed, in the valve mechanism OHV, that is, when the camshaft is located in the block, and the valve mechanism is provided in the action pushed booms, while in the mechanism of the valve drive appears superfluous detail - rocker.
It was then and is an additional source of noise. In addition, the mechanism in more detail, the greater the chance of breakage. The second argument was the more fundamental and, one might even say, conceptual. Was he in the fact that the Soviet car does not need motors with a high degree of compression, and, accordingly, there is no reason to enter into the everyday верхнеклапанную design. The fact that the economists of the former state planning Commission has estimated that the benefits of lower fuel consumption related to the increase of the degree of compression, does not cover the difference in the retail price of between gasoline so-called second-class, that is, gasoline with octane number 56, at which ezdilo the majority of the cars, and gasoline of the first class - with octane number 72, which was used for the filling of the ZIS-110. The situation with regard to верхнеклапанному engine has changed only with the end of the Us-Korean war and the subsequent follow this with a decline of international tension.
This recession has led the Soviet automobile industry not only think about the domestic market, but also on the export of cars. And on the export not only in the country, the so-called people's democracy, but in the real capitalist.
The main drawback of the «402» model was inherited from the predecessor weak, outmoded нижнеклапанный motor, the construction of which dates back even further to the mid-thirties. He had increased up to 1220 cm3 of cubic capacity and the capacity of 35 HP., it did not allow to directly compete with the best foreign samples of this class, who in those years up to 35-40 HP specific power of the motor of a ton of weight against 22,7 the M-402. Development of developed at the МЗМА fundamentally new верхнеклапанного engine with hemispherical combustion chambers and aluminium cylinder block (project «406») did not take place for economic reasons (there was no exchange of funds for the purchase abroad of necessary machinery equipment), and the series went engine M-407, which was based on the the cylinder block all of the same power unit «Кадетта» and M-400/ 401, but with an increased displacement, aluminum cylinder head with top location of the valves and other improvements, which made it possible to increase the capacity of up to 45 HP engine with working volume of 1358 cm3. He could be made to the present machinery.
Serial production of «Moskvich-402» was closed in may 1958. 

Technical characteristics
Dimensions, mm
length x width x height 4055x1540x1560
base 2370
The layout of the
front engine
the drive wheels rear
The body sedan
Maximum speed, km/h 105
The engine of the "Moskvich-402", gasoline, carburetor, in-line
the number of cylinders 4
working volume 1220 cm3
number of valves 8
the location of the lower
power, HP/kW 35/25,7 at 4200 rpm
Gearbox, the three-stage
front independent, spring
rear axle, the longitudinal springs
Brakes hydraulic
front drum
rear drum
Electrical Equipment 12 B
Tire size 5.60-16

"Moskvich - 402Т" taxi";
Moskvich-402Б" with manual control for persons with disabilities;
in 1955 built prototype with двухдверным body.
Moskvich-423 - the first mass-produced vehicle with a cargo a five-door body «universal», was produced in 1957-1958.
Initially, until 1961, in his designs were used the same side of the body with curved rainwater grooves, those same doors and the rear panel of the high-threshold Luggage cover, that of the sedan. This is shown in the illustration above. This allowed to considerably save on the production tooling, because the most complicated and expensive are its elements as time stamps for doors and side with their openings.
The back seat was, forming the cargo compartment length of 1 473 mm and a width of 1 220 mm. With folded rear seats of the car could carry a 250 kg of cargo and two persons, including the driver. For a spare wheel under the floor housed the horizontal niche. The rear springs were to 5 mm wider than the basic model of the «Moskvich-402». The rear of the fifth door was навешена on the side hinges, opening to the left, and its threshold was at an altitude of 760 mm of the earth is extremely high.
There were also projects трехдверных wagon and wagon, but they did not go to the series, as envisaged by the project elongated front doors demanded manufacture of new stamps.
Moskvich-410 - wheel drive sedan on the basis of «Moskvich-402», was produced in 1957-1958 

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