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Moskvich - 412

Moskvich-412 - Soviet passenger car of a small class, produced in Moscow at the factory МЗМА, later renamed as AZLK, from 1967 to 1976, and the car factory in Izhevsk from 1967 to 2001. Was, in fact, a modification of the model of «Moskvich-408», for many years, выпускаясь together with her, and later also in conjunction upgraded to a family of «Moskvich-2140 / 2138».
Installation on the «408-th» model of modern and substantially more powerful engine significantly increased dynamic characteristics, while maintaining the efficiency of bringing them up to high for this class even by Western European standards of performance. Although the controllability of the car and remained at the same level, no longer meeting developed in those same years the similar foreign models, its braking dynamics has improved, and the work of the driver has been facilitated by the introduction of hydro vacuum amplifier in the brake system. Interior and exterior design of «Moskvich» were changed, the update was mostly cosmetic, but it was also designed to pull the car up to the standards of passive safety, adopted by the UNECE, in order to ensure the possibility of further export to developed countries, which was confirmed by the certification crash-tests in France.
Car widely offered on the external market, in the first years of the issue most of the M-412 went for export. Car Assembly was carried out in Bulgaria (under the brand Rila) and Belgium (under the brand Scaldia). In promotion on the world market of the important role played glory, won the «Muscovites» in international rally at the turn of the sixties and seventies.

History of creation
Аnd the moment of its productions in production in 1967, «Moskvich-412», and «Moskvich-408», was going in the back of a sample of 1964, with каплевидными vertical tail lamps and round headlights of head light. As the number of nodes of «Moskvich-412», - in particular, wide radiator, - didn't fit in the engine Bay of the space «408 " wow» of the body, the first copies of the new model descended from the conveyor in the specially modified due to a change of a number of elements; then, in the same 1967, was introduced so-called «unified» the body is still with the old design, but suitable for the installation and «408-th» and «412 " wow» power units without alterations.
Meanwhile, at the same time began and development for the «Muscovites» renewed body, and before its creators had set a goal of maximum unification of the force elements with an existing, in particular, were to stay the same apertures of doors and roof - so that the task of the designers was really difficult: not changing the overall design of the body, to give the car a fundamentally different visual perception compared with the predecessor.As a result of the modernization, on December 1969, both models (and M-408, and M-412) have modified the body, in which without alterations could be installed both available in the manufacture of power units. Along with some external осовремениванием, modernized the body has been brought to conformity to accepted in those years, the requirements of passive safety, which was confirmed by certification tests in France. In particular, all of the body were mounting for the safety belt, which became regular equipment in 1969, while the elements of the interior became травмобезопасными, with soft pads (February 1969). Therefore, to refer both models were added letters And e, meaning compliance with the established UNECE standards of passive safety and, accordingly, the potential for export to developed countries. In General, the «Moskvich-412ИЭ» became the first Soviet car, on which the issues of passive safety has been given serious consideration. Dual same braking system (since 1969) significantly improved and active safety of the car. In 1974 (1972) have fangs on the bumpers, which are also an element of passive safety - they prevent the «подныривание» the car under the obstacle.
Visual novelty of the updated car was ensured by the application of horizontal lamps with triangular direction indicator lamps at the rear and rectangular headlights production of GDRs (also placed on the Wartburg cars 353). Keeping the decorative fins, symbolizing the continuity of the design of cars, «Moskvich» received a fundamentally new design of front: turn signals straightened up and took place under the headlights and radiator grille has received a pattern in the form of cells with a broad low-cells.
In a series of such machines went on МЗМА with December 1969, and around the same time at the Izhevsk plant. Parallel to the «Moskvich-412» received a salon with separate front seats (in January 1968) and the transmission lever in the floor (on November 1968), at the same time with the new, травмобезопасной (emerging at impact) steering wheel and the lever of the brake between the front seats. «Moskvich-408» also received a separate seat, but the selector lever still some time remained on the steering column (old type).
In addition, during the whole issue in the design of the car are made and other, less visible changes and improvements.
Although since 1969 «Moskvich-412ИЭ» became the basic model of the Moscow plant, the issue of the «Moskvich-408ИЭ» when it was saved. Export sales of its practically ceased, but the inside of the USSR car is still in demand, mainly due to lower the demands of the old motor to the operational materials and good acquaintance with him, drivers and repairmen (such significant, as subsequently «deficit» of passenger cars in the USSR at that time was no, because until the appearance of «Zhiguli» the demand for them was relatively small, this factor became contribute to forced popularity of the «Muscovites» obsolete «408-m» motor only much later).Modernized vehicle remained the main drawback of its predecessor - the lack of an overall width of the body and the track of the wheels at a fairly high altitude and high location of the centre of gravity, which, in addition to reducing the comfort, in conjunction with leaf rear suspension has had a negative effect of stability and controllability of «Moskvich». This became especially evident in comparison with the emerging at the same cars «VAZ», who had a more optimal ratio of the height of the centre of gravity and gauge, which in combination with improved rear suspension provide them with the best performance. The load-carrying capacity of cars VAZ and the survival of their chassis were significantly lower than that determined in the nearest decades «division of labour» between the cars, " «Moskvich» began to be perceived in the role of a less comfortable, but more strong and traveled by car, well suitable for trips on the nature or on a summer residence with a load at a time, as the «Zhiguli» enjoyed the glory of comfortable and dynamic «highway» of the machine (later the same fate befell the «classic» model of VAZ in comparison with переднеприводными).
Of the significant technical improvements, there was a tendency fuel pump new engine to overheat under the high temperature of the surrounding air, which was due to his not-quite successfully selected location and brought to life a lot of driving tricks, designed to ensure uninterrupted supply of gasoline in extreme heat. In addition, gearbox, in its basic details inherited, in fact, even from the «407 th» model, in pair with a significantly more powerful power unit was relatively low durability and a high percentage of premature failure. In the rest of the car inherited characteristic of his predecessors high constructive simplicity, reliability, unpretentiousness to the conditions of operation and maintenance.
In 1971 the plant МЗМА has undergone reconstruction, after the launch of the new pipeline, the volume of the issue of the «Muscovites» increased almost in two times.
In the same year, the interior of the Muscovites (and-408ИЭ, and-412ИЭ) production AZLK passed modernization: the instrument panel instead of several individual soft lining received the same overall, there appeared new door trim, internal handles, and so on.
Logic and the previous history of the plant AZLK / МЗМА gave reason to perceive model-412ИЭ as a transition: подновленный body in conjunction with a brand-new engine. It is thus, at the expense of «transition» series, a change of the generations to МЗМА in the 1950-s - 60-s years.However, despite numerous attempts to factory designers in the early 1970s design the car, which combines new, modern exterior and mechanics of model -412 (see. Muscovites series of 3-5 and Muscovites series C), replace «412-mu» family actually has only emerged in the 1980s, and it was quite the other car, " Moskvich-2141, переднеприводный hatchback, created on the basis of the body of the French «Симки» and already outdated by the time the engine TIES.

Estimation of the model
«Moskvich-412» was a reliable, unpretentious and dynamic enough for his time machine.
The design of the vehicle at the time of development of production (1967). excluding the newly developed power package could not boast of a novelty of " all the same, it generally went directly to the «Muscovite-408», developed at the turn of the fifties and sixties, " but was quite comparable to the mass European cars of this class, with the exception of models of innovative development.
To the beginning, and, moreover, the mid-seventies the car is already substantially inferior to the foreign analogues of the same class, mainly on such parameters, as the reciprocal of the ratio of the total width of the body and the ruts, the total height and the height of the centre of gravity (which means stability and controllability), brake dynamics (many European producers by the time the cars of this class set front disc brakes at least in one of the upper grades, and the most advanced - and rear), ease of management, volume, ergonomics and interior, exterior design. And modernization of the 1969 decided to these problems only partially, as the power base of the body and chassis remained essentially the same.
Nevertheless, the fall in prices and the earned in the previous period reputation allowed to preserve the sale of the «Muscovites» in the West in a more acceptable level until the mid-seventies.
In the USSR before the appearance of «Zhiguli» of the «Muscovites» were the only publicly available family car. «Moskvich-412» was compared with the Fiat 124(prototype of «Zhiguli») to different generations of cars - his platform was developed in the late fifties, and the platform Fiat 124 - in the first half and the middle of the sixties, so a direct comparison with him on consumer characteristics of «Moskvich» 't stand.
However, in contrast to the up VAZ, Moskvich-412» was usually in the free market, therefore, it was usually more available. In addition, he was much more adapted to our road conditions and is less demanding to the operational materials, are simpler in design, and ремонтопригоднее. As for the reliability and fortress construction, «Muscovites» won prizes at prestigious international competitions, in which the most important were these qualities - such as «London-Sydney», «London-Mexico» and «Safari», «Фиатам» but they, on the contrary, there was nothing to boast of.Unfortunately, the «stagnation» and the emergence of the Volga automobile plant, which was funded by and secured by dominating principle, actually put the cross on the further development of the brand «Moskvich», starting from the mid-fifties выдававшей very interesting cars thanks to the team of young and creative designers and designers.
Neither developed on AZLK on change to the model range of «Moskvich-408» / «Moskvich-412» fundamentally new family of «3-5» and «With», or created in Izhevsk переднеприводный IZH-13 Start in the series for a number of reasons and have not walked, and eventually устаревающая design and appearance considerably reduced the prestige and popularity of the series «Muscovites» and «Ижей», so to восьмидесятым years in the USSR in this regard, they surpassed only «the Cossacks».
Appeared in the 1976 model of «Moskvich-2140», which was actually the product of a cosmetic update «Moskvich-412», despite of a number of progressive novelties, like the disk the front brakes were no modern car - obsolete the concept, the ideology of the machine, and in the first place - the design of the chassis and body design.
Nevertheless, despite this, Moskvich-412 - one of the few models holding out on the Assembly line, more than thirty years, and thanks to the low price and available spare parts and service he was in demand even in the nineties.

In addition to selling to the population, sedan Moskvich-412 used by the police and traffic police. Attempts were made to use the car (as a sedan, and wagon) in the taxi. Station wagons and vans widely used by trading organizations as развозных cars.

Description of design
Saving expensive in the production of body panels, many of the nodes and constructive solutions «408-th», M-412 largely advantageously differed from it. For the first time in the mass domestic car found application: верхневальный the engine, fully synchronized on transfers of the forward gears, brake system with hydro vacuum amplifier, полнопроточный oil filter, air filter with быстросменным dry element nodes, without which it is impossible to imagine a modern car, but in the second half of the sixties, they only started to appear on the vehicles of such class.The main novelty of the model was the engine, developed by Igor Ivanovich Okunev. The possibilities of the old, leading his pedigree, even from the pre-war Opel cadet, engine M-408 was at that time have been exhausted, therefore the new engine had no connection with it constructively or technologically. The first prototypes of the new engine appeared in 1964. «Обкатывалась» the design of the racing car Moskvich-G4M, which had forced his option (92 h.p.) The car is a master of sports In. Щавелев took fourth place in the championship of the USSR of 1966 on ring races.
The engine was developed entirely design team of the plant МЗМА. The first development верхнеклапанного engine with hemispherical combustion chambers and aluminium cylinder block (project «406») on the «Moscvich» dates back to the mid-fifties. Nevertheless, the prototype of quite a number of constructive solutions of the final version of this engine guess is simple - the latest, at the time, the power unit of the BMW M10 in the version with a capacity of 1500 cm3 (she was designated М115 and was produced until 1977, and the family of engines M10 existed on the Assembly line before 1987) - the unit itself is a uniquely successful and perfect for those times, a good account of itself as in a normal operation as well as in sports.
However, no copy, no further development of this engine UZAM-412 was not, and has from him extremely significant differences, in particular, a different geometry of the cylinders, some of the constructive decision of a majority of systems, and so on.
However, it is argued that and specialists of BMW the total with the engine of «Moskvich» the construction of the aluminum cylinder heads with hemispherical combustion chambers and V-shaped valves located, within a very long period of time the former characteristic for the engines of the firm, was also a «подсмотрена» the motor of the company Talbot at the Paris motor show, 1935.
The main external features of the engine of «Moskvich-412» - angled to the right on a course of movement of the cylinder block (the so-called slant-block). This decision has allowed to make the engine more compact, reduce the car's centre of gravity. For the first time such a decision has adopted a firm Chrysler in the late fifties.
Under the casting of aluminum lid head unit with a beautiful inscription «Moskvich-412» there was a very modern for the 1967 year of construction: the upper camshaft, set in motion leaf chain with a tensioner is marked by the star, and the shoulder yokes valve, located letter V on both sides of the camshaft. This scheme is widely used in the high potential engines of those years, BMW, Honda, and so on.
Unusual was and the hemispherical shape of the combustion chamber, which provided the best conditions of combustion of a mixture, there is увеличивавшая efficiency of the engine. A similar decision was brought success to the family of engines HEMI the American company Chrysler (produced so far with minimal changes) and the above-mentioned BMW M10.
The cylinder block was made from aluminium with a cast-iron replaceable liners, which allowed to do capital repair of engine simple replacement cartridges, not demanding a serious machine-tool equipment, boring, necessary in the case of the cast-iron cylinder block.When the working volume in 1480 cm3, motor -412 developed 75 HP., which at the time was a good result for a car of this class. For example, a Car, 1967 in Europe - FIAT-124 - had нижневальный engine with capacity of 60 HP., the powerful version of «1400 Special» - 79 HP. The engine of the BMW 1500 for the same work volume developed the same 75 HP. (80 h.p. in versions with other carburetor), but at significantly higher torque (118 N*m against 108 N*m Muscovite).
In the late 60's-early 70's a powerful, modern, not demanding to the operational materials and very reliable (albeit too noisy) engine was the main trump card «of 412-th» and on the domestic market, and on export. Until 1972, the «luxury» of the model VAZ-2103, M-412 was the fastest out of the mass of domestic cars.
Weak side UZA was a bad craving at speeds below 3000 rpm. This is due to the relative короткоходностью at high crossing and the peculiarities of the gas distribution phases, namely the large phase of the opening of valves: 282 degrees against 232 ' for VAZ-2101. Such a broad phase of the opening of the valves has caused high, at the time, the turnover of maximum power and more characteristic for sports motors «pick up» link only after 3-4 thousand on./ min, depriving the engine necessary flexibility, which caused inconvenience for the daily operation.
In the late 1960's to install on sports and racing version of the car at AZLK were created version of the engine volume of 1,5-1,6-1,7-1,8 L. with two camshafts in the cylinder head (DOHC) with preservation of the eight valves, such a scheme was widespread in those years in the European high potential engines (examples - the Jaguar XJ, Fiat 125, Alfa Romeo Giulia). Capacity ranging from 100 to 125 HP.
Until the appearance of the model VAZ-2103, the Russian athletes have preferred to just «Muscovites», because the engines of the family «1500» easy форсировались and give a good return in power, thanks to a large cross-sectional area of the channels of the cylinder head, smooth profile of channels, cross the gas flow, wet cylinder liners, улучшавшие heatsink, which is important for the forced engine. An important advantage of the engine the VAZ-2103 was more hard cast iron cylinder block, separate cartridges, which at the same time had a couple of relative deficiencies is one - sided location of the channels of the cylinder head, because of what happened heating of the working mixture of exhaust gases, and strong curvature channels, ultimately resulting in reduced engine power because of the increased flow resistance and created certain difficulties for the field forcing, as the proximity of channels under the coolant constrained by the increase of the passing of the cross section.In the last year of production, on the basis of the engine UZAM-412 were created serial options displacement of 1.7, 1.8 and 2.0 liters for installation on автомобилиМосквич-2141 «Svyatogor» and IZH-2126 «Ode», but they are not widespread in connection with the termination of the production of these cars.
In the 1990s, there were also prototypes options with four valves per cylinder and distributed fuel injection. The most perfect engine UZAM-3320, developed jointly with the firm AVL, developed 115 HP.
Also UZAM engines for their reliability and service life have been spreading in the family of the boats of the «Amur» and «East». They also have been used for fork-lift trucks.
In many respects it is thanks to the development МЗМА on cars VAZ engine had the upper camshaft; on their prototype - FIAT-124 - the engine was нижневальным, as, for example, the «Volga» or earlier «Muscovites». Only after long negotiations and in many respects thanks to the efforts of the chief designer of AZLK Andronova Italians lost to the requirements of the Soviet delegation to design the engine is more modern design (which, however, led to a certain problem with a resource camshaft engine VAZ. About the reasons of the deterioration already stated publicly (see magazine «Behind the wheel», 5/1997). Расчетчики FIATA inserted at the top of the Cam, it is obvious to increase the time-sections, the cylindrical section - 6 points through the 0.5 degree, i.e. a total of 3 degrees. When you use a Cam called dynamic blow and as a consequence of the depreciation in the form of a cut.
The clutch was reinforced, with spring diaphragm type (for the first time in the industry), was produced under the license of BORG & BECK.
The transmission was a modernized version of the already released «408-th». In contrast, the new cat all transfers of the forward were synchronized. However, the box has some design flaws. So, gougeon, securing the roller forks of the shift, had a habit of on-the-go вывинчиваться, lost, out of his hole was spent oil. Cat, сопрягавшаяся with the driveshaft bearings, instantly breaking down. The system of the shift to open the levers on the side of the cover ceased to operate normally due to blocking of the voter rock, ice, and dried mud. Most often «lost» reverse. The geometry of the scenes switch was rather unsuccessful, election and switching remained unclear until the middle of the issue 2140, when, finally, the factory changed the construction of two levers like to do this on their own altered tens of thousands of Amateur Kulibin.
Here it should be noted that in General the cat with the direct management in the global automotive industry phenomenon is not too frequent. In order to switch the transmission lever, located on the box, it is necessary that the box itself was located in the car properly, that is not far from the driver. This in itself is not always possible, of the extreme options you can remember the RAF, GAZ-66, ЕрАЗ. Many foreign cars, including a Mercedes, the CPT is controlled by the scenes, such москвичевским. With a cross or rear of the cat switch the transmission can ONLY be remotely. Of course, the technical performance of the switch has not the least importance for the driver.In General, the transmission was considered to be an obvious weak point of «Moskvich-412», although after some alterations in the garages of car owners or at the motor vehicle junctions, эксплуатировавших «412е», became quite reliable and «walked» by 150-200 thousand km, being very lightweight to the quality of the oil and with a small gas tank. But, nevertheless, according to statistics, 10 % of the boxes, left the factory in Omsk, not modified even to run 63 thousand km, and the average life expectancy of 100 thousand km (from the box VAZ - twice-four times more).

Exterior, interior, chassis
The body of the equipment and chassis remained largely similar to the Muscovite-408. The modernization of both models was carried out in parallel, and unification in the future, remained, but the M-412 many of the changes introduced earlier, than in M-408. So, it previously appeared floor-mounted gear lever and the instrument panel with a single soft grip.
Body since 1969 has been equipped to meet the European standards of passive safety (before this, before they drove the only body of machines, going for export).

Izhevsk «Muscovites» and Assembly abroad
In 1967, in parallel with the deployment of the issue M-412 in Moscow, similar cars began to produce instead of the M-408 to built, in the production of defense enterprises of Izhevsk automobile plant, курируемом the Defense Ministry and personally the Minister of defence Grechko.
Mark «Moskvich» in the model designations when it was saved - and all the cars Izhevsk production identifying it as a «Moskvich-412» (later, after the appearance of the renewed body, - Moskvich-412ИЭ»), although carried factory mark of the Izhevsk plant in the grille. The first model, issued under an independent brand «IZH», was IZH-2125 «Combi». Thus, the valid are the names of the «IZH-Moskvich-412» or «Izhevsk „Moskvich-412",» but not «IZH-412».
Subsequently Izhevsk «Muscovites» developed and modernised in General, regardless of Moscow.
Due to a higher level of quality control on virtually the defense enterprise, which is a part of the production Association «Izhmash», on a number of certificates cars Izhevsk production in the Soviet time were collected significantly better than their counterparts production AZLK, in particular, the plant in Izhevsk practically did not allow the production of a marriage. However, not initially automobile profile of production made itself felt - for example, finishing salon Izhevsk «Muscovites» was generally performed rougher, than Moscow.M-412 produced in Izhevsk to 2001 (serially until 1997), including the versions of the pickup body - IZH-2715 (c 1972) and «Combi» - IZH-2125 (1973); long, but was manufactured in Izhevsk and the van «Moskvich-434».
To 1968-69 years car outwardly fully correspond to the 412-m «Muscovites» production AZLK in the «old», «408-m» body with vertical tail lamps, except for the emblem of the «IZH» on the lattice of the radiator (different from the later of the emblems «IZH») and the steering wheel. Closer to the end of this period, even in the «old» the back of the truck, appeared radiator grille with modified diagram (vertical).
Since 1969, Izhevsk sedan received a new body (412ИЭ) with horizontal tail lamps (in the same body began to collect and sedans AZLK). But if Moscow «Muscovites», together with a new body were obtained and a new radiator grille with a wide подфарниками and scarce rectangular headlights production of the GDR, the «IZH-Moskvich-412ИЭ» kept the round headlights and the old jail. Rectangular headlamps and close by design, but differing from the использовашейся on machines production AZLK the grid (vertical pattern) were equipped with only single party Izhevsk car, intended for export, in the period from 1972 to 1974.
In 1982, was held restyling, appeared the door with recessed in solid pens (different from similar on Moscvich-2140), a black-painted radiator grille. The new model was designated the «Moskvich-412ИЭ-028». Approximately at the same time the body of the sedan was unified with the truck and the combination of design elements of power, having received the «average» spars - amplifiers compartment floor, connecting the front and rear subframes.
Exported Izhevsk cars along with Moscow and under the same brand. Pickup IZH-2715 sold in Finland as Elite PickUp, as the base sedan was there known as Elite 1500.
Also M-412 going to the Soviet components in the town of Lovech in Bulgaria under the name of Rila, as well as model «408» since 1967, then in 1976, there were going to model Moskvich-2140 and from 1988 - Moskvich-2141 «Aleko» (under the name of Moskvitch Balkan).
Screwdriver Assembly «Muscovites» from машинокомлектов engaged and in Belgium, the firm Scaldia-Volga S.A. Here they were known under the brand Moskvitch Scaldia 1500. As an option offered diesel engines - originally a British firm Perkins, later - of the French Peugeot-Indenor. The interiors of Скальдий were seriously altered relative to a baseline of the Soviet version. Bundling offered: Normal, LS, Elita and Rally.In Finland, the dealer of the Muscovite was a firm Konela, full Assembly of машинокомлпектов she had not done, but its variants Muscovites were also significantly improved relative to the source, this also applied to the interior, and, often, the technical part.

Moskvich-412 abroad
Moskvich-412 widely offered on the external market until the mid-seventies. Export geography included as the countries of the socialist camp, and the Western European States (France, Belgium, Netherlands, great Britain, Germany, Finland, the Scandinavian countries, Greece and others), as well as countries of Latin America (Cuba, Nicaragua, Jamaica, Panama).
The export of M-412 went under the brands that represent different variants of the Latinized spelling of the word «Moskvich» - Moskvich, Moskvitch, Moskwitsch, Moskvitsh; or (in some markets) as Moskvitch Elite 1500 or just Elite 1500 (also available in Finnish flyers found designation Elite 1500 Cavalier), and used until the mid-seventies the relatively good demand, including in the countries of Western Europe.
Question to the markings of vehicles sold abroad, is a complex and confusing, as in the different markets were very different terms. Here are only the most common.
Export car differed improved layout (this is mainly for chrome moldings along the bottom of the door), until 1969 part of the exported cars were equipped with четырехфарной front lighting system (but not all). Assembling of the cars, going for export, was the same as usual, but quality control was a double.
It should be noted that «некондиция» these modifications, recognized utterly unfit for export, after the correction of the defects found, as a rule, went to the domestic market.
Mainly for export went cars production AZLK, modernization which was faster. Izhevsk is the «Muscovites» mainly sold on the domestic market, although some parties sedans are also exported, and the «Combi» and pick-up trucks were offered abroad is quite widely.
Foreign dealers, especially in the seventies, when the model has already become obsolete, often installed elements of the dealer decorating - for example, the other seats, the «teeth» on the bumper, the air vents in the rear pillars of the roof, hidden decorative fine mesh grill; painted in a contrasting color of the roof («under the vinyl»). The most global modification performed a Belgian firm Scaldia-Volga, even оснащавшая individual party «Muscovites» diesel engines and who sold them under its own brand.The most successful period for the export of the «Muscovites» was a milestone of the sixties and seventies. Very contributed to the growth of their popularity successful performance in the acclaimed rally-raids like «London-Sydney» (1968) and «London-Mexico» (1970), «Safari» (1973) and others, in which the machine has proved itself a reliable and suitable for heavy road conditions. It is a conservative, but a strong design was the main trump card of «Moskvich-412», along with quite modern and relatively powerful engine, especially by the standards of its price group.
However, by the mid-seventies appearance and the chassis of the vehicle is substantially out of date, and the popularity of the model abroad decreased sharply. Of course put an end to the former international fame «Muscovites» the transition to the issue of рестайлингового family «2140/2138» instead of the expected buyers of brand new platform, out-of-date already at the moment of their production into the production. A revival, but short - term, it is only with the transition to переднеприводному «Muscovite Aleko».

Moskvich-412 and sport
An interesting chronicle of the sports achievements «412-th».
Thanks to the reliable, durable design, a relatively powerful engine and talent of the racers, «Moskvich-412» not made in transcontinental water marathon race «London - Sydney» (1968, 16 thousand km) - the fourth place in the team competition; rally ' London - Mexico» (1970, 26 thousand km) - the third place in the team standings (after factory teams firms Ford and British Leyland), the best of crews took the twelfth place in the individual (complexity of the route shows the fact that only then finished 23 cars of different brands of 96 started); «Tour Europe» (1971); «Golden Sands» (stage of the championship of Europe, Bulgaria, 1972); «Safari» in Nigeria (the beginning of 1973; the second, the third fifth place from 27 started cars finished eight, including all three of «Moskvich» without serious breakages); «RAID Polish» (stage of the championship of Europe, 1973); and others.
It should be noted that in these runs of the «Muscovites» competed, including, and with a much more expensive, large and powerful cars, such as the North American Ford Falcon GT class «Volga» with motor I6 and V8, or sports - like BMW 2002ti with впрысковым a two-liter six-cylinder engine and a Triumph 2.5PI with a 2.5-litre «six», " besides, sometimes seriously modified.
The list of the modifications of Muscovites included only local strengthening of the body, the structure of the safety of хромансилевых pipes, «chandelier» fog headlamp, кенгурин, the protection of crankcase, pneumatic audio signals, high-altitude compensator in карбюраторах, navigation devices, auxiliary fuel tank and wheel disks of the increased width. In this form Muscovite hard to be around 500 kg, capacity of the collected manually motor only slightly exceeded indicators of the staff (80 - 81 HP).In 1972 on the basis of the M-412 was built a sport M-412Р with uprated engine with two camshafts and cast-cast aluminium wheels for participation in the all-Union championship. Until the eighties, and the appearance of a family of «Lada Sputnik», «Muscovites» considered to be one of the most prospective for sports Soviet cars thanks to the successful design of the engine (see above in the appropriate section). In August 1968 the serial «Moskvich-412» became the championship of the country first, and all on account of this model 15 victories in all-Union Championships. In particular, outstanding Izhevsk athlete Vladimir chars in Izhevsk «Moscvich» three times became the champion of the USSR rally championship (1977-1979), twice champion of the USSR on autocross (1979-1980 gg.) and seven times champion of the USSR on the track races (1979-1985).
In 1971, three of «Moskvich-412» on the initiative of the Belgian participated in the 24-hour marathon on the track of Spa-Francorchamps in the framework of the racing series ETCC,as a result of showing the qualifications of the last three of the result, even behind cars more than the younger groups. - finish on 16 and 17 places of 18, one car came down due to construction of the cylinder head. But it should be noted that it was a tough competition, and because of serious technical problems from it dropped and many of the cars of famous Western companies, for example - several Chevrolet Camaro, Opel, BMW, Alfa-Romeo.
In 1972, the Englishman Tony Lanfranchi won a victory in the race British Saloon Car Championship in his «Moscvich-412». He did not at the expense of absolute leadership, but due to the dominance in its class; in view of the fact that the classes were organized depending on the price, inexpensive Muscovite with its relatively powerful, constructive manner reminiscent of engines expensive high potential of cars like BMW, power package was in the same group with more small and low-power motor vehicles. As a result, Лэнфрэнчи scored 28 victories in 29 races. Also Tony Lanfranchi played for cars «Moskvich-412» in rally
Sports achievements significantly influenced by the commercial success of the «Muscovites», which received a fame as a strong and reliable machines. After marathon «London-Sydney» the sale of Soviet cars abroad significantly went up. Unfortunately, by the mid-seventies with hard-won positions in the world of motorsports had to pass: the basic model of AZLK by this time thoroughly obsolete, and the offing her replacement put on the conveyor has failed (see the article «Muscovites series of 3-5»), managed by the Ministry of defence of the Izhevsk factory of work on sport versions were discontinued after the death of chief designer Vladimir Арамаисовича Abrahamian. Volzhsky same plant of this sports car to create the so and could not.

Technical characteristics
Body type: all-metal «sedan» which is a type of
Overall dimensions: 4205х1555х1500 mm
Ground clearance: 173 mm
Curb weight: 1000 kg
Maximum weight: 1400 kg
Base: 2400 mm
Type of engine: Petrol, four-stroke carburetor
Fuel tank capacity: 45 l
Transmission: Manual, a four-step
Ignition system: Contact
Front suspension: Independent, spring with transverse links, with stabilizers of cross stability
Rear suspension: the Longitudinal полуэллиптические springs with earrings in the rear ears
Maximum speed: 140 km/h
Time of acceleration up to 100 km/h: 19 with


The base sedan:
Moskvich-412 - base sedan.
Moskvich-412И (until 1969) - as a special version corresponding to the European standards of safety.
Moskvich-412ИЭ - all M-412 since 1969 had letters of ie, as the new body was initially compatible with European standards of safety and theoretically could be exported.
Moskvich-412К - set to build abroad.
Moskvich-412М - medical service.
Moskvich-412П - RHD, lever gate only the floor.
Moskvich-412Т - taxi (wide distribution has not received).
Moskvich-412У - training, with extra pedals and applying цветографической schemes.
Moskvich-412Э - export.
Moskvich-412Ю - in the tropical execution.

Station wagons and vans:
Main article: Moskvich-427
Moskvich-427 - base station wagon.
(letter indices similarly sedans)
Moskvich-434 - base van.
In 1972, has been updated van on the basis of the M-408, M-433, a version with an engine M-412 received the designation of «Moskvich-434». In contrast to the early M-433, fifth door made whole. As has been upgraded universal Moskvich-426 (also on the basis of the M-408), in the version with the new engine, he received the index of M-427, the rear lights have remained the same. From the previous model also includes the whole of the back door, raised up. Малосерийные and experienced:
Moskvich-412Р - sports version with boosted engines, including those with the «twin-shaft concrete mixer» head of cylinder block 412-G(412-2B) volumes of 1.5, and 1.6, 1.8 l., развивавшими power in the range 99-140 HP. 

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