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Moskvich - 407

Moskvich-407, standing up on a conveyor belt in may of 1958, and published prior to 1963, was a modernized Moskvich-402 with the new верхнеклапанным engine. Appeared started with the launch of the ignition key (although in the beginning was released on a small set of machines with the old starter) and moldings on the sidewalls (at the same time has changed and the price - from 15,000 to 25,000 of the pre-reform rubles). Recommended gasoline became A-72, though tolerated and short-term operation on the old 66-m. An interesting detail - even in the beginning of 1959, the Muscovites was accompanied by an instruction from the 402-th with a Supplement "Engine of the model M-407". The new engine model «407», in particular, the cylinder block, conceived in such a way that it became possible to make it to the available then at the factory machines. The engine received a new aluminum cylinder head with overhead valves. Thus, a compromise was reached between the progressive construction and existing machinery. When the volume of 1360 CC engine developed the capacity of 45 HP
The history of the 407-th started in 1951, when the "Moskvich-400", a copy of the pre-war German "Opel-Kadet", is hopelessly outdated. The first prototype of the "Moskvich-402" was very similar to the English runabout Ford Consul. Four years later, the prototypes was twelve, and only then the state Commission approved the same one of them in series. Production 402-th began in April 1956, simultaneously with the termination of the issue 401-th (modified in 1954 400-th). A little later began to be released created on the basis of the 402-th «Moskvich-423» with a body of a station wagon and a passenger car of the raised passableness «Moskvich-410».
The new "Muscovite" has become a pioneer of domestic automotive industry for many of the indicators: panoramic цельногнутое windshield, telescopic shock absorbers, бесшкворневая front suspension, push-button control locks the doors, the двухспицевое the steering wheel. However, in spite of all the innovations, in the car there were many anachronisms. The power unit was from the previous model with the increase in рабочегообъема to 1.22 CC. - power нижнеклапанного engine the "Moskvich-402" amounted to 35 horsepower against 26 HP at "Moskvich-401". Gearbox, which had three speeds, as well as the main transmission remained the same. Starter had a foot drive from the pedals. This is the reason for the relatively short life of the model for two years was released only 87 thousand Muscovites-402".
407-I model went into production in may 1958. There was a significant step forward. The volume of верхнеклапанного engine - 1358 CC. 45 horsepower driving the vehicle weigh a ton of up to 115 km/h, against 105 the 402-th. Appeared started with the launch of the ignition key (although in the beginning was released on a small set of machines with the old starter) and moldings on the wings and doors. From other external differences - have become more short pads on the rear doors, and the orange section of the blinkers in the tail lamps from the middle section moved to the top. But at the same time has changed and the price from 15 000 to 25 000 pre-reform rubles.Рекомендованым gasoline became A-72, though tolerated and кратковременая operation on the old 66-m. An interesting detail - even in early 1959 to the "Muscovites" was the instruction from 402-th with a Supplement "Engine of the model M-407". 1 October 1959 on all auto appeared a four-step gearbox, in February 1960 changed the scheme of electrical equipment with less battery on the ground, and in 1961 began to be more modern гипоидный rear axle with a reduced ratio, which allowed to reduce the consumption of gasoline. A number of cars were painted in two colors. At about this same time, it was changed design of the cladding radiator - instead of the middle of the horizontal chrome-plated beams appeared grid. And in 1963 in connection with the changes in the chassis of the machine and did was renamed in 403-Yu. The body appearance has not changed compared with the M-407. Twice more rare was recommended by the factory manual maintenance. Appeared windscreen and a new steering wheel. Pedal brake and clutch were suspended, and the latter received a hydraulic drive. Upgraded suspension. The main parameters of auto remained the same. There was also an export version of the M-403Э with modified facing the radiator, mouldings and rear lights. The issue of the "Moskvich-403" and its modifications in the form of the wagon and wagon lasted until 1965, the last year in parallel with the new 408-m.
From the devices in the car was speedometer, odometer, current meter, pointers amount of gasoline, oil pressure and water temperature. And here is the indicator lights in the beginning there were only two small blue beam at the speedometer (проградуированном to 140 km/h), and the white inclusion of a fan heater in his semi-transparent round the handle of the control with three speeds. Inclusion of the direction indicators of the monitored on the status of a little white lever on the steering column. Only in 60-s there appeared a relevant indicator lamp. The hood open a handle under "бардачком" at the door right in the front passenger seat and the trunk handle under the back seat on the right. Thus, to climb in the back, it was necessary to first open the rear right door. Brake lever was behind the front panel on the right side of the steering wheel. If necessary you can disable ruchnik one swift blow of his hands, in difference, say, from "Zhiguli", where you need to press his finger on the button and lower the lever. Drive wiper was mechanical, from the engine. All cars were equipped with the lamp radio with a range of long and medium waves and adjustable backlit instrument cluster. The driver's door from the inside is not blocked. The instruction said " if you wish to lock the car from the inside, for example, at night, lower left front glass, lock the lock of the door through it from the outside ignition key and lift glass. By the way, seat, раскладываясь, provided a relatively comfortable sleeping place.C 01 October 1959, the car has received четырехступенчатую gearbox, but in 1960 - гипоидный the rear axle. Several years in a row, more than 50% of Muscovites-407 went for export. Moreover, the Respondent was in demand not only in the socialist countries, but also in such countries as Finland, Norway and France. Export versions of different two-tone colour (in this case, however, part of the back of the machines came and on the domestic market) and completed exterior. It is for the sake of building up the export program of "Moskvich-407 with conveyor" were removed four-wheel drive models Moskvich-410Н and Muscovite-411.
Model «402» and «407» appearance differed very slightly. In particular, In 1958 display «Moskvich» on the hood. In 1960, a Muscovite-407 received a new grille (up to this point трехбрусовое making front was identical to the model of Moscow-402. In January 1961 was changed to "drop" on the hood, and in February 1962 disappeared "fangs" with the bumper. In addition, a Muscovite-402 had a long vertical, inclined molding on the back of the door, and the Muscovite-407 this molding noticeably укоротился (however, long molding on the back of the door was followed by a short only in June 1958, and the first Muscovites-407 were with a long moulding), and on the Board appeared slim trim plate from stainless steel.
Similarly Moskvich-402 and figures «425» in the designation of the body, on his drawings preserved, although the trade description disappeared.
The Muscovite-407 factory team participated in the rally «a Thousand lakes» and «Akropolis». Also issued the following modifications of the Muscovite-407Ю for the southern climate, Moskvich-407Э export.
Inherited from the previous model «Muscovite-407» went to number of innovative design features: roll (panoramic) windshields and rear Windows, telescopic double-acting shock absorbers at the front and rear, бесшкворневая suspension of the front wheels. The standard equipment of the vehicle entered the radio. The windshield has been defended from the comfort of warm air from the built-in heater. Seat in the cabin were laid out in a flat bed, and driver's license to the same received the capacity of rapid longitudinal adjustment with the fixing lever. Even by European standards, such equipment was considered rich.

Flaming engine
Called the «Moskvich-407» absolutely new model would be wrong. Launched in production in 1958, he became the deep modernization of the products made to him of «Moskvich-402». The main difference is a power. The 407-th model set a new overhead valve engine with a whopping 45 horsepower, instead of the outdated нижнеклапанного power unit with a capacity of a total of 35 of «horses». At the time - a real technological breakthrough!The emergence of this engine was preceded by long work. To launch into production верхнеклапанные motors were installed only on the sports cars, which participated in the Championships of the country and shown in competitions brilliant results. This success led factory designers And. And. Okuneva, And. A. Gladilin and I. In. Hot on the creation of верхнеклапанного engine for serial «Moskvich». The idea became the basis to create a «new» engine was very simple. The designers tried to reach a compromise between the existing equipment (replacement of all of the machines not included in the plans МЗМА) and progressive new design. An alternative to found: the block of cylinders of engine 407-th of «Moskvich» began to make the already existing at the factory machines. The principal novelty in the motor was only aluminium cylinder head with top location of the camshaft. The first hundred 45-strong motors produced in 1957, and from may 1958 they are complete production vehicles.

There is no limit to perfection
At first the «Muscovites-407» outwardly almost did not differ from the previous «Muscovites-402». Recognize the novelty helped only indirect evidence: was reduced in height chrome «comb» on the edge of the rear door, and under the factory logo display «Moskvich». Since December 1959 - for the first time in domestic passenger cars - began to install the new четырехступенчатую transmission instead of the three-tier system. This improved dynamic and operational properties of the machine, especially on the ground and mountain roads. To improve the design of manufactured subcompact in the fashion of those years the body of the «Moskvich» made a two-color, and to mask the border of the transition from one color to another, on the back of the truck entered separating the molding of stainless steel. Two machines «improved bundling» have been focused on export, and on the bonnet, under the factory emblem and an inscription appeared «Moskvich».
In 1960, the car appeared a new lining of the radiator, significantly altered the «face» of the subcompact, as well as the new tail lights with two, instead of three, diffusers. At the same time with this side molding began to be installed on all new subcompact, regardless of color. In December 1960 noisy gear main gear with spur bevel gears gave place to the more quiet and reliable гипоидной transfer. In January 1961 plastic red «flag» on the hood replaced metal «straw», and in February 1962 disappeared «fangs» with the bumper. In this form of «Moskvich-407» acquired its final «classic» type and issued prior to October 1963.

On the merits
Practically simultaneously with the beginning of serial production of the «Muscovites-407» there was a Decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers № 422 dated 17 may 1958 «About the measures on further development of automobile industry». It МЗМА were ordered to raise the production of passenger cars by 1965, up to 100 thousand pieces in year, due to a high demand for the «Muscovites» inside the country and its large export potential. This decree has not been devoid of meaning. Already in August 1958 at the world motor show in Brussels 407 and 423 of the «Muscovites» were awarded gold medals and diplomas, which significantly increased the prestige of the Soviet car abroad. Besides the countries of the socialist camp, the demand for «Moskvich-407»was in Finland, Norway, Belgium and Greece. For the sake of building up production of export «Muscovites» in January 1961 even have to sacrifice all полноприводными modifications of the «Muscovites» (M-410Н and M-411Н) - they were removed from production. Durable, reliable, fairly modern, but at the same time, simple in operation and repair, «Muscovites» were quite competitive in the world market.The successes of the Moscow plant of small cars in the development of new products have not gone unnoticed, and soon to be appreciated: in March 1960 for the creation of the car «Moskvich-407» МЗМА was awarded the Diploma of the exhibition of economic achievements of the USSR of the first degree. In Soviet time it was a significant reward. And at the same time, the replacement of «four hundred and seventh» was already preparing a new, more technically perfect «four hundred a third model, which for a number of units and parts was unified with the next, the third generation of Moscow up. The last car of model «Muscovite-407» has descended from the conveyor of car factory in October 1963. All were released 359 980 cars, of which every third - 120 903 - has been put on export.
From the memories of the chief designer МЗМА Alexander Fedorovich:Andronova
«During the meeting Khrushchev with U.S. President Eisenhower, in the autumn of 1959, have them talking about cars. The President spoke about the fact that you can make a sample of sales of cars «Moskvich-407» on the American market, and added that when he resigns, it will be pleased to have at his ranch such a car. As a result, we at the factory got the job: very urgent to do in the experimental shop of three of the vehicle with a full guarantee of quality and with better finishing. Car painting should be yellow, green and cherry in order to facilitate the choice. Organized round-the-clock work, are selected on the conveyor three car and then the usual disassembly, inspection, finishing, Assembly, adjustment and again-check on the car all nodes. And the body again рихтуются, sanded, painted, обиваются expensive materials, shall be equipped with a non-standard parts and products of the attributes of the trim and equipment. Ten or twelve days tired, but satisfied with the results of the work we have passed the casings three different car and started our urgent factory Affairs. But the cars did not get to the Эйзенхауэру. 'll American pilot-scout Power of the plane-spy U-2 was shot down over the territory of our state, and the Minister of trade of the USA prior to this incident announced in the press and on television that he will take all measures to ensure that the Soviet car «Moskvich» could not get to the markets of the USA».
«MOSKVICH-407» became one of the most successful models in the history of the plant. To our days, in spite of the past decade, have survived hundreds of copies of this machine. Partly this has become possible thanks to the structural strength and the thickness of the metal body (of 0.8-1.1 mm). But all the same the main role played really love to «four hundred and seventh». These cars are preserved not only in private garages, but also in many Museum collections: the former factory Museum AZLK, Riga Motor Museum», in a private meeting of car Motors «October», the company «Delta»in the Finnish city of Tampere, etc.«Moskvich» - the champion!
«MOSKVICH-407» has contributed much to the development of motor sport in the USSR. Many riders were on it in the ring and Hippodrome races, rally. The cars were equipped with boosted engines (up to 67л. sec. at 4800 rpm), stabilizer of transverse stability and stiffer springs rear suspension. All the machines of this model was to win 12 victories in the Championships of the USSR.
And in October 1956, the Central автомотоклуб the USSR was admitted as a member of the International automobile Federation (FIA). The Soviet Motorsport received representation in the international body that regulates the technical kind of sports. The Soviet racers came out at the international level.
Already in August of 1958, our sportsmen made their debut on the «Muscovites-407» at the international competition - rally «1000 lakes» in Finland. Athletes went on almost serial, not brought to the sports level machines, and a rally of experience of the Soviet racers almost was not. But to finish have reached all four of the factory crew! In the course of the next four years, «Muscovites» successfully stormed the foreign route, thanks to which the prestige and, consequently, the export of the Soviet cars increased in several times.

Technical characteristics of the Muscovite-407:
Number of seats: 4
Maximum speed of 115 km/h
Time of acceleration up to 80 km/h - 24 sec
Fuel consumption at speed of 30-40 km/hour - 6,5 l/100 km
The braking distance from a speed of 30 km/h - 6,0 m
Electrical Equipment - 12 In
Battery - 12 In
Battery - 6ST-42
Generator G-22; 16 A; 200 W
Relay control of the RR-24Д
Starter ARTICLE-122; 0,6 HP.Chopper-distributor - R-35Б
Spark plugs - А11У
Tire size - 5,60 - 15

The weight of the vehicle in running order:
without load, total - 990 kg
with a load of 4 people total - 1290 kg
front axle - 640 kg
rear axle - 650 kg
Road gaps:
under the front axle - 200 mm
under the rear axle - 200 mm
Minimum turning radius:
on the tracks of the front of the outer wheel - 6,0 m
external - on the most protruding part - 6,3 m
Suspension front:
independent, spring, with transverse location of levers, бесшкворневая, shock absorbers, hydraulic, telescopic
Suspension rear:
dependent, the longitudinal semi-elliptical springs, telescopic shock absorbers bilateral actions
The steering mechanism:
глобоидальный worm and двухгребневый roller gear ratio - 17,0
The brake pedal:
drum, on all the wheels with hydraulic drive
Brake manual:
drum, rear-wheel drive with mechanical drive
single-disk, dry with torsional vibration damper
mechanical, three-stage, двухходовая, the control lever on the steering column, later a four-step
Number of gears : three-stage gearbox:
I - 3,53; II - 1,74; III - 1,00; reverse - 4,61
Number of gears : four-gearbox:
I - 3,81; II - 2,42; III - 1,45; IV - 1,0; reverse - 4,71Bevel main gear: 4,71 (33 and 7 of teeth)
Гипоидная main transmission: 4,55
407, carburetor, four-stroke, four-cylinder, in-line, overhead valve
Cylinder diameter is 76 mm
Stroke - 75 mm
Volume - 1,358 cm3
The degree of compression - 7,0
Number of valves - 8
Order of work of the engine Ah 1-3-4-2
Carburetor K-59 (with falling stream)
Maximum capacity: 45 HP. (33 kW) at 4500 rpm
Maximum torque: 9,0 kNm at 2600 rpm

Together with the base model of fuel-efficient cars «Moskvich-407», issued in April 1958 on December 1963, the new engine of the plant are equipped with all of its modifications. On the streets of green lights flashed and «shashechki» taxi, model «407Т», additionally equipped meter. Specially for people with amputation or paralysis of the legs was created «407Б» - a car with manual control. The major difference from the basic model of the application of a special system of manual control of the accelerator, clutch, brake and throttle control valve carburetor, switch, starter switch and light (previously carried out foot switches). The doctors went to the patients on the car «407М», designed for service «medical assistance at home». The model was equipped with a distinctive signs, first aid kit and the inner lining of body made of easy to clean кожезаменителя. In Hot countries with tropical climates went export version «407Ю». In addition, production was launched the five-door modernized cargo / passenger version with a body «versatile person», with capacity of 4 persons and 100 of the cargo (or 2 people and 250 kg of cargo) - Moskvich-423Н», the van «Moskvich-430»four-wheel drive sedan «Moskvich-410Н» and universal «Moskvich-411Н».
«Moskvich-410Н» was produced in 1958-1960 GG. On the personal initiative of NS. Khrushchev, a four-wheel drive car was to be used in rural areas, clearly demonstrating improving the welfare of farmers. But the production of complex four-wheel drive machines have had to be curtailed in favor of the increase in the output of export modifications of base sedan.
«Moskvich-423Н» was produced in 1958-1963 gg. Cars with a body «versatile person» is ideally suited for vacationers and travelers, but in retail sales came in limited quantities, используясь mainly in the public service. Moskvich-423Н for a long time remained an elusive dream of the private operator.
«Moskvich-411Н» was produced in 1958-1960 gg. A four-wheel drive car with a body «versatile person» in many respects ahead of his time: the fashion for comfortable cars with all wheel drive and universal bodies came 20 years later. And then, because of the high cost of design model is not widespread, forever remain the exclusive rarity.
«Moskvich-430» was produced in 1958-1963 gg. Special cargo version of the popular brand. In private hands is not sold, but was widely used in the trade of the state network for delivery of small batches of goods. At its base was made even a special refrigerated vehicle ЛуМЗ-945 for transportation of ice-cream and semi-finished meat products.
Moskvich-407 coupe special sports car for circular and Hippodrome races. The double body was easier and put on wheels lower than that of the continuous model. Is made in two copies in 1962.  

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