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Moskvich - 2141

Moskvich-2141 (export name - Aleko, from Lenin Komsomol automobile Plant, in the countries of the European Union was sold under the name of Aleko) - the Soviet and Russian passenger car of the third group of small class (segment D) with a body of type «hatchback», published from 1986 to 1998, at the Automobile plant named after Lenin Komsomol (AZLK).
From 1998 to 2001, was the upgraded version of «Moskvich-2141-02», known under its own designation - «Svyatogor». In 2002 the factory conveyor belt stopped, and the most recent instances of poorly collected and requiring strong refining, left the shop at the beginning of 2003. Even after the cessation of the operation of the plant AZLK, production of «Moskvich 2141(-02)» and the truck on its base continued to third-party enterprises until 2002, until the finished vehicle sets.

History of creation

AZLK since the late sixties actively worked on rear wheel drive cars, intermediate class between models of VAZ and «Volga» (see article Muscovites series of 3-5 and Muscovites series C); by the middle decades of work have been brought to the stage of any prototype samples. However, to establish serial production of the failed because of which began in the autumn of 1976, the reshuffling in the leadership of AZLK and other reasons. 
Meanwhile, несмоторя for AZLK оценивавшегося as «предсерийный» of a running prototype of a-3, in Минавтопроме by this time have already decided that AZLK should develop and start production of a family of two-wheel drive cars of the same class as more modern. Instructed and was launched at the plant.

The initial period of
As the best prototype to accelerate the design of a new car Минавтопрому seen recent Franco-American model of Simca 1308 production of the European branch of корпорацииChrysler, holder of the title of «Car of 1976 in Europe
Either way, the prototype on the basis of body Simca 1308 with a new front end styling, which was longitudinally installed engine from the «Moskvich-412», was ready already in 1977, four months after the beginning of the design - it openly called «Максимкой». In October of the same year he has been demonstrated leadership at the stadium AZLK and approved for further development.Design features
The front part of the «Симки», calculated on the cross the location of the power package, not suitable for installation available in production in the USSR engines because of their great length, and height; in addition, the «proprietary» torsion suspension of cars Chrysler double wishbone, made on the pattern of the American models of the Corporation, was too unusual decision, and not easy to operate.
Therefore, in the design of the body for the Foundation took the body «Симки» only starting from the front-pillars - this part of the largely retained its common external shape (in this case, the body panels were still designed anew), as well as many elements of the design of the power of the framework, in the first place the most significant and complicated in design - openings.
However, a completely different design of the rear suspension in the form of the compound crank with twisted springs (very widespread in those years, the structure that arises from a car VAG), instead of the independent on cross-torsions in «Симки», has caused considerable differences in the structure of the bottom and the rear end of the vehicle body in the area of the floor of the Luggage compartment.
Elements of the body up to the a-pillars and the shield of the engine compartment had been redesigned completely, in particular, appeared long, low-lying spars complex, conducive to effective энергопоглощению in a frontal impact forms for good for those years of passive safety of the vehicle.
The aggregate of the car is also not differ uniqueness - the layout of the powertrain and front suspension type «McPherson» and rear semi-independent with a torsion-beam (type «torsion " crank») clearly reminded, in particular, cars West concern VAG («Audi», «Volkswagen») with a longitudinal engine.
In addition to the possibility to apply (as originally believed, as a temporary measure) already existing in the production of too long for transverse-engines TIES and VAZ, in the long term this arrangement attracted and the possibility of creating a car with all-wheel drive (they were created in the late eighties, together with the British company FFD, and in the last years of existence of the enterprise serially produced).
In addition, the layout of the predetermined high for its time, the passive safety of the vehicle, especially off hit the driver's side - in the car even in the early nineties was comparable with the models of foreign production.
However, longitudinal location is quite long, high and heavy power units of VAZ and PRISON predetermined well as a large front overhang, the relatively high line hood, a violation of развесовки, the deterioration of the geometric flotation and a little tacky appearance хэтчбэка with a long «nose» (a harmonious appearance modification «sedan» is serially not been released).For the line of two-wheel drive «Muscovites», which under the original plan was to include the basic model of the «Moskvich-2141» (hatchback), «Moskvich-2142» (sedan), «Moskvich-2335» (pickup) and «Moskvich-2901» (wagon with increased capacity, that is, a minivan), was constructed the original family of gasoline and diesel engines of «Moskvich». Was created motor AZLK-21415 (1.8 litre, 8 valve); motor AZLK-21416 (1.8 liter, 16 valves); as well as turbo diesel volume of 1.8 litre AZLK-21413. For the production of these engines, when AZLK create their own motor production.
However, the engine plant, being built by the beginning of the nineties to 90-95 % (data vary), because of the outbreak of the economic crisis and the impossibility of maturity of the enterprise of the credit in $800 million, provided in the late eighties VTB Bank under a purchase of imported equipment, completed was not, and later the installed equipment was dismantled was eliminated, and simply lost.
As a result, «41st» Moskvich, «temporarily» starting the engines of VAZ-2106-70 («Moskvich-2141») and the BOND-331.10 («Moskvich-21412»), and did not wait its own modern engine that largely predetermined the unfortunate fate of the car.
In series production at переднеприводный «Moskvich» were carburetor engines working volume of 1500 cm3 (UZAM-331.10), in the summer of 1994 - 1700 (UZAM-3317), and later 1800 and (very rarely) 2000 cm3 production of the Ufa plant (TIES), developed on the basis of the engine of «Moskvich-412», and also - on the lower part of the issue - the 1600 cm3, later - 1700 and 1800 cm3 production of VAZ;
In addition, in the early nineties were issued export modifications of the M-2141-136 and M-2141-10 with a diesel engine of foreign production capacity of 1800 cm3 model FORD RTF (XLD418, the same engine was mounted on the model Ford Fiesta, Ford Escort, Ford Sierra September 1993).
In the mid-nineties, the question arose about the modern engine for «Moskvich». After long search for designers stopped at the French injector engine model Renault F3R272 (2000 cm3), the version with him were offered in the end of the serial production of the model - in consumer qualities, they are the best in all family.
The only type of gearbox with all of the engines was a five-speed manual, first appeared on the machines of Soviet production it is on M-2141.
In comparison with the previous models AZLK, construction and design of which up to the end of the fifties - early sixties, M-2141 certainly was a real breakthrough. But by comparison with the budget of cars of foreign production anachronism it at the moment of the beginning of production does not look. Such decisions, as a five-speed gearbox, fourteen inch wheels, the relatively long wheelbase, wide body of type «hatchback», the front suspension type «McPherson» and полузависимая rear type of «torsion " crank», rack and pinion steering and integrated «volumetric» plastic bumpers at the beginning of the production of the vehicle (1986) are not yet in the world's automobile generally accepted, although the progressive at that time also has not been considered.Used in car design solutions allow even with regard to the use of obsolete power units to reduce weight and fuel consumption compared with «Симкой», has improved and permeability due to the increase in ground clearance and a good download of the front of the drive wheels (reverse side not too successful развесовки).

In the process of development of a model of feathers (несиловые external elements) of the body of «Moskvich» was designed anew, as a result of which the exterior of the car significantly differed from the French model, and though with some stretch of the imagination, but corresponded to the level of the mid-eighties. According to the recollections of the creators of the body of the «Симки» with the units directly used as a basis for пластилинового layout of «Moskvich».
Was not the body of the «Moskvich» exact copy foreign models and from the point of view of the proportions and dimensions - in particular, was slightly reduced wheelbase, shortened rear overhang and increased front. The interior was developed completely independently, and on all the dimensions he excelled «Simka».
As a result of its prototype «Moskvich» in his final, serial form inherited only the General outlines of the body after the front of the roof, some peculiarities of its construction (mainly the power of the framework, including door openings). He inherited from the French automotive school and placed under the floor of the trunk of a spare wheel (up to 1999), " the last solution turned out to be not quite successful for the Russian climate, so as the housing is subject to rust, and take off his wheel in the wet weather, not испачкавшись very difficult.
Any claims in respect of unauthorized use of intellectual property to AZLK not there - which was confirmed by the security documents all the industrialized countries of the world, including France (although after the European premiere of the model in the press was a discussion of its possible connection with the products of «Симки»).
In contrast to the «log» forms of хетчбэков VAZ «eighth» family, «Moskvich» was more rounded and contemporary Outlook, which has predetermined also the best aerodynamics (called the coefficient of drag air Cx=0,35, however, it raises certain questions).The last M-2141 was obliged to and including the stage of development purging of models in a wind tunnel of the Department of mechanics of the Moscow state University, and later on, at the stage of finishing - blowing full-size car in TsAGI and on the equipment of firm «Renault» in France, that influenced the choice of smooth, rounded lines for the front part of, the introduction of special aerodynamic shield in front of the engine housing, which allowed to reduce the flow of air under the car, as well as the aerodynamic «skirt» on the rear bumper. From this point of view, M-2141 remained the most committed by the Soviet production car until the VAZ-2110.
Unfortunately, linking forms the rear of the vehicle to the French prototype did not give the full use of the existing at that time the Foundation for the improvement of aerodynamics, " in particular, it is noted that only a small (5-10?) of change of the angle of inclination of the back wall of the body in the direction of decrease would reduce the drag coefficient for a significant value in five-six one-hundredths.
Meanwhile, the nature of the flow of the body «Moskvich» was such that the rear window - unlike хетчбэков VAZ - practically not забрызгивалось when driving, that has allowed to refuse wipers, rear door, in the base.
It is curious, that the design of the front part of the final form of very like one of the most experienced «Muscovites» series «C», " S - 3, that is, the earlier your practice AZLK in this area all the same to some extent have been in demand. It should be noted that in the process of designing the physical appearance of the car has been selected quite a large number of design options, and in a series of them went quite seriously revised as to how the original, and the original options.
аряду with the base model with a body «hatchback» was developed and modification with a body «sedan» - «Moscow-2142», and work on it were already on the basis of the finished hatchback, which considerably complicated work on the car
As a result, the model of the so and did not go to mass series, was built only a certain number of prototypes and production of prototypes, some of which subsequently fell into the hands of the individual owners. Instead of the start of the «people's» sedan «2142», a plant with the end of the nineties focused his attention on the creation of the «exclusive» version стретчей and coupe on its basis, that on the background of rapidly falling quality of production cars (a considerable part of which in the last years of work the company supplied just in недоукомплектованном form) quite naturally became one of the factors that led to the financial collapse and the subsequent bankruptcy of the enterprise.
Yugoslav company «Progress» in its time manufactured a prototype of a wagon on the basis of «Moskvich».In addition, it was released a certain number of cars with a body «pick-up», had a spring independent rear suspension, part of which was fitted out as a спецмодификации for таксопарков.

The safety car Moskvich-2141 quite high even by today's standards, despite the fact that it was launched back in 1986. This is explained by the long front overhang, which in the case of a frontal collision assumes most of the impact, thereby protecting the driver and passengers.

Features of the family
For a family of «Moskvich-2141» characteristic of roomy saloon and Luggage Department (expandable by folding the rear seat), the effective heating of the interior, light steering effort, good handling on high speeds and traction on snowy and dirty roads. High repairability of the car partly had bathed inadequate and unreliable used to it components and assemblies.
On set of consumer characteristics, «Moskvich-2141» to the greatest extent answered the concept of «family car», surpassing the closer the economy model of VAZ. On the ergonomics of the driver's seat «Moskvich», by many estimates, exceeds all other domestic cars in the decade ahead, including the later of the «tenth» family of VAZ.
However, for all its positive qualities, «41st» Moskvich, «temporarily» starting the engines of VAZ-2106-70 («Moskvich-2141») and the BOND-331.10 («Moskvich-21412»), and did not wait its own modern engine that largely predetermined the unhappiest the destiny of the car.
In addition, the quality of components and Assembly, and especially - the primer and painting of bodies of the AZLK in the perestroika and post-perestroika period was unstable and, on the whole, quite satisfactory, and over the years more and more worse. In the 90-ies, after the transfer to the simplified technology of» painting, the body of an average vehicle started коррозировать already in the first year of operation, that of a very negative impact on the image of the model.
In the second half of the nineties, the plant began to use imported components for improving the reliability (new engines, brakes, lights), but this has led to an increase in prices and did not solve the main problem with the «blooming» of the body. In addition, the recent commodity party of the cars were issued plant in неукомплектованном form and дособирались, in fact, in handicraft conditions.
Modification of M-21412 differs an unfortunate combination of the Ufa engine UZAM-331.10 (modernized version of the old engine Moskvich-412 with vortex combustion chambers), which took quite inadequate mass and dimensions of the car working volume and capacity, with the more modern part of the crew. As a result, the car did not have the necessary capacity and dynamics, besides the adaptation of the motor under the new engine compartment was made not quite successful, so that the number of nodes and attached units (first of all - ignition distributor and expansion tank, cooling system) were the most vulnerable and further reduce the already low reliability of the car. 

Technical characteristics
Dimensions, mm
length x width x height 4350x1690x1400
base 2580
The layout of the
front engine
leading wheels front
The body of the five-door hatchback
Maximum speed, km/h 158
Engine VAZ-2106-70, gasoline, carburetor, in-line
the number of cylinders 4
working volume of 1570 cm3
number of valves 8
the location of the upper
power, kW/HP 76,4/56,3 at 5400 rpm
Gearbox manual five-speed
front independent, spring, type McPherson
rear axle, spring
Brakes hydraulic, with vacuum
front disc
rear drum
Electrical Equipment 12 In
Tyre size 155/80R 14

Moskvich-21412 (1986-1995). from 1990 - Moskvich-21412-01") with the engine of the BOND-331 (version motor "Moskvich-412Э", with a capacity of 72 HP/52,9 kW maximum speed of 145 km/h);
Moskvich-21413 (1990-1991). with a diesel engine Ford-КНD" (capacity - 1,8 l, capacity-60 HP/44кВт at 4800 rpm, maximum speed of 140 km/h) intended for export, however, a few hundreds of cars sold in the USSR;Moskvich-214122 (1995-1999). with the engine UZAM-3317 (volume - 1.7 liter capacity - 85 HP/62,5 kW at 5400 rpm, top speed of 155 km/h);
Moskvich-214123 (1995). with the engine UZAM-3313 (volume - 1.8 l, senior compression - 7,2, gasoline A-80, capacity - 85 HP/62,5 kW at 5300 rpm, top speed of 155 km/h) intended mainly for taxi; Moskvich-2141Е1 (capacity 48 kW) - a prototype of the electric motor, the battery T-125, the capacity of 125, A.C. voltage 108 In;
pick-UPS "Moskvich-2335", 233522, 233523, 2335-120.

Modernisation: The «Svyatogor»
The upgraded version of the car «Moskvich-2141» debuted in 1997. Updated the car has received not only a new index (2141-02) and the proper name of «Svyatogor», but also significantly changed the appearance and a more powerful engine. Thanks to the new headlamps firm «Hella», the appearance of the car has become more attractive and less silhouetted against the foreign models of the mid-nineties.
In view of the absence of its own engine with satisfactory performance, the management of JSC «Moskvich» decided to use the motor F3R272 firm Renault volume of 2.0 l (option -214145 «Svyatogor» - 104,5 HP. (gross - 113 HP)). Modern French engine has greatly improved the reliability, dynamic and high-speed characteristics of the car. The installation of more powerful engine resulted in a change in the nodes of the transmission and the brakes on a more reliable and modern foreign production (used Valeo clutch and vacuum power brakes firm Lucas). In addition, the M-214145 was reduced ground clearance.
However, a large portion of the issue continued to put the old engines of VAZ-2106 and PRISON-3317 (individual party «Святогоров» equipped with a 1.8-liter engines VAZ-2130 and PRISON-3313/3318).

The project of further modernization of
In the late nineties in the factory project was developed further modernization of the car. «Svyatogor» was to get a new front end, completely new bumpers under the color of the body with rubber inserts, the back portion with a third volume, rubber moldings on the sidewall and modern lighting equipment and a completely new salon. The project was brought to the stage of demonstration models - there were several variants.

Pick-up truck «Moskvich-2335» and minivan «Moskvich-2901»
Commercial truck «Moskvich-2335» (his metal однобортовая platform was unified with the trailer production of the same AZLK) capacity of 640 kg and executed on the basis 2141 wagon with increased capacity «Moskvich-2901» (add 5-door body with a high roof was metal), appeared in 1991, and two years later he went into series production. Moskvich-2335 - Soviet and Russian truck with carrying capacity of 640 kg on the basis of a passenger car Moskvich-2141 Automobile plant named after Lenin Komsomol (AZLK). It was easy city commercial развозным, as well as дачно farm car. The Muscovite-2335 was a special trailer. Cargo platform Moskvich-2335 and trailer can be equipped with the unified awning. Was developed in 1991, in 1994, was launched in small-scale production, which lasted until 2002. Due to the small demand, mass production is mastered was not.Schematically represented the front half of Moskvich-2141, состыкованную with steel cargo platform. Since the back of the pickup does not have a rigid roof and high sides, is very important for the bearing construction elements, had to strengthen its Foundation in power scheme longitudinal stretcher. For empty and Laden car, it was quite a big difference to the load on the rear wheels (respectively 352 and 860 kg), therefore a decision was made to install on a car dependent suspension of Moskvich-2140, on two longitudinal springs. The bottom of the cargo platform was installed 60-litre tank of gas.
Pick-up truck, like the base hatchback different low corrosion resistance of the body, improper engine, as well as non-optimal развесовкой that kept under full load to go on the icy rise.
The car was ready for serial production already in the 1 quarter of 1991, however, for some reason, the appearance of it on the conveyor belt was postponed to the year of 1994. After 1998, the Muscovite-2335 received the new design of the front part of the body of Svyatogor. At the end of the 90-s production of the pickup was also mastered at Omsk factory of WMD. The production model of the AZLK lasted until 2001, up to the full stop of the enterprise. The Assembly of a pickup in Omsk was curtailed in 2002.
In 2000 on the basis of the truck were created modification with twin cabin and all-wheel drive, but even мелкосерийно their longer produced. Also there was an option with the electric motor, обозначавшийся E1. In a series of электропикап went not, the only copy is kept in the Museum of Retro Cars on the Rogozhskoe shaft.
The rear suspension of the pickup, and Ola has been made dependent on its springs. At the end of the 90-s production of the pickup was transferred to Omsk plant of WMD, and Ola at the Kyiv car repair plant # 5. In 2000 on the basis of the truck were created modification with twin cabin and all-wheel drive, and a version of E1 with the electric motor, but serially their longer produced. Pick-up truck, like the base hatchback different low corrosion resistance of the body, improper engine, as well as non-optimal развесовкой that kept under full load to go on the icy rise. The Assembly of the truck was stopped in Omsk in 2002. 

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