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GAS-A - passenger car of the middle class open 5-local 4-door body type Phaeton. A licensed copy of car Ford-A, equipment and documentation for production of which were bought by the Soviet government in the United States in 1929, the Ford Motor Company.
The history of this car started in заокеанском Detroit, when Henry Ford, finally realized that his Ford T is hopelessly outdated. More recently, Ford believed that his T would stand on the Assembly line not less than one hundred years, until mankind has not invented batteries, more capacious, than the gas tank of his car. Then, in the year of approximately 2008, according to the forecasts of the Ford Foundation humanity had to switch to electric cars. However, the reality has forced the Ford removed from the conveyor of the model T and replace it with a model of A.
Moving to A model, Ford decided, first of all, replace the motor - 23 horse power of the latest Ford T was in the new conditions is not enough. However, the new engine was a slightly increased the engine of the previous model. The diameter of the cylinder squandered with a 92.5 to 98,43 mm - boring out further not allowed to межцентровые distances very rationally designed engine model T. Had to increase the stroke - with 101.6 mm up to 107,95 mm, which resulted in the creation of a new crankshaft and new connecting rods. As a result the volume of the grown to 200,7 cubic inches (in metric measures - 3285 cubic cm). The power of the same amounted to 40 horsepower. The design used and many progressive solutions. For example, instead of the wooden spokes in the wheels began to metal, and instead of oil clutch - dry single-disk. Recent excluded the cases of collision of the vehicle on the driver. The fact is that the Ford T car was a dangerous character trait is sometimes due to непрогретости oil grip turned on by itself and the driver, заводивший car the crank handle, been there, crushed own car. So in the instructions to Ford T stated: «before you start the car, turn on the reverse». However, since 1920, when the Ford Tons of steel install электростартеры, the need for this step instructions no longer, but moving to A model, Ford decided to starter and battery leave only as an option, to meet the specified 385 us dollars.
Following the same production and marketing scheme, as with the model T Ford made cars Ford-and low-tonnage truck Ford-AA - just as when something made from Ford T Ford vols. There even appeared a three-axle model Ford AAA, наследовавшая Ford TTT. It is this universal and well-unified series like the Soviet leadership, and it is this car, as is a simple, reliable and technologically, it was decided to make the basic Soviet легковушкой. The then Soviet Union, of course, more needed trucks. Therefore, releasing the first batch of NAZ-AND to the opening of the plant, the following trained only to 6 December, when the Nizhni Novgorod has already become Bitter, and NAZ has already become a GAS. 

Start, as always, with the appearance. GAS-A looked like a typical car turn of the 20-ies and 30-ies of XX century. The bumper of the car was made of two elastic steel strips. Nickel-plated radiator was decorated with the first emblem of the Gorky plant - black oval with the letters «GAS». Wheel with wire spokes without threaded nipples to adjust the tension - a strength and reliability possessed design.
Slightly yellowish color of the windscreen says that it is triplex - two layers of glass with a third - elastic film, once a transparent, but from time yellowed. At the stroke of triplex glass is covered with a thick layer of cracks, but not disintegrated at the individual crystals, as modern автостекла. In front of the windshield sticking drain the fuel tank. It is located on the rear of the engine compartment: the fuel flows to the carburetor by gravity. Thus, no need for бензонасосе, in those years, still very imperfect instrument. A tank of gas for GAS-A almost hanging above the knees of the driver and passenger. At the bottom of the tank was the knurled wheel, the driver left, overlapped. Cock often подтекал that from the point of view of fire safety posed a serious threat. On the black эбонитовом steering wheel next to the signal there are two levers. One is used for manual control of ignition advance (now ATB work machine), and the other is to install a permanent presentation of the «gas». The speedometer not familiar arrow - behind the window of the device move inflicted on the drum figure, indicating speed. The numbers on the transfer of gasoline are marked on the scale, connected directly to a float in the gas tank.
Just below a tiny circular accelerator pedal there was support for the heel of the right foot - long pedal appeared on cars much later.
If we managed to make out all of the car to the last ботика, we would have seen merely 21 roller bearings (in modern cars are about two hundred thousand), of which seven roller, and videos навиты of thick steel strip. And here is the crankshaft bearings are bearings, not such, as now, with thin-walled quick change bimetallic inserts, which serve* IN-100 thousand km. Material for them served alloy called babbit are studied, which poured «bed» bearing directly on the engine block or in the connecting rod. To fit the surface of the bearing to шейкам crankshaft, layer баббиташабрили. But even the most careful fitting is not saved from the fact that in 30-40 thousand kilometers had to again fill the bearings.The design of the car's frame, the frame of the two side members, corresponding transverse beams.
Clutch - single-disk, dry.
Gear box is three-stage, three-speed forward and one back.
The main transmission to the rear axle - a pair of bevel gears with spiral teeth. Final drive ratio - of 3.77.
Suspension and the front and rear axle - dependent, on the transverse springs, with a 4-dimensional hydraulic shock absorbers коловратного type of unilateral actions.
Bus - 5,50-16 inch wheels, with three-row of metal pins.
Brake drum, with mechanical drive. Parking brake - belt, to the rear axle.
Turning radius - 5,5 m
Much of the design of the GAS-BUT it is presented in our days surprising: belt manual rear wheel brake, absence of devices for control valves (if necessary valve core slightly спиливали), very small (4,2) compression ratio, due to the hot weather, when the conditions for the evaporation of a liquid is favorable, the engine could even run on kerosene.
For the suspension of wheels served two transverse springs, and the rear has an unusual form of a strongly elongated «writing» the letter L.
GAS-A was produced primarily with open пятиместным four-door body type «Faeton». In case of bad weather could be to raise the canvas awnings and fasten above the door canvas sides with целлулоидными Windows. In 1934 was вылущена pilot batch of machines equipped closed bodies of type «sedan». Building on the conveyor of such bodies, in which it required the mutual adjustment of the many complex on the form, and most importantly, easily deformable details, walked very slowly, and have rejected them. But the demand for private cars was there to meet it, the Moscow plant «Арсмкуз» was mounted on the chassis of the GAZ-A closed четырехдверные for the Moscow taxi. 

Technical characteristics
Dimensions, mm
length x width x height - 3790x1710x1788
base - 2630
The body of the Phaeton four-door
The layout of the
front engine
the drive wheels rear
Maximum speed, km/h 90
The engine of GAZ-A, gasoline, carburetor, in-line
the number of cylinders 4
working volume of 3285 cm3
number of valves 8
the location of the lower
power, HP/ kW 40/29,4 at 2200 rpm
Gearbox, the three-stage
front axle, the transverse springs
rear axle, the transverse springs
Mechanical brake
front drum
rear drum
Electrical Equipment Of 6 In
Tire size 5.50-19

Modification and special vehicles on the basis of GAS-A
GAS-3 and GAS-6 - modification of the closed 4-door saloon. GAS-6 was produced in small batches in 1934-1936 years. This is the first Soviet serial car with a closed body. The main challenge in the production were operations on the conveyor with thin metal sheets and their welding.
GAS-4 - modification with a cargo body truck with carrying capacity of 500 kg. The car was equipped with a cabin of the truck GAZ-AA, spare wheel was placed in a niche on the left wing. Cargo platform - 1,6 1,1 m. Produced in 1934-1936 years. Produced more than 10,5 thousand. (according to some data, 10648 PCs.) trucks GAZ-4.GAZ-A-Aero - an experienced car with aerodynamically clean streamlined body on the chassis of the GAZ-A. Established in 1934 as an engineer And. About. Nikitin.
GAS-A-Аремкуз is a special modification for work in a taxi, was produced in Moscow between 1933 and 1935 by years. Car-taxi was equipped with a closed body with internal partition separating the driver from the passenger compartment, the production of the Moscow Авторемонтно-body plant «Аремкуз». Unlike GAS-3 and GAS-6, the bed was not all-metal, and on a wooden frame with metal panels. The length of the modification reached 4286 mm, height - 1720 mm, kerb weight - 1350 kg. Released about 500 pieces.
On the basis of GAS-A produced several types of ambulances with the original design of the body, including the lining roll.
On the chassis of the GAZ-A was built light armored D-8, D-12.
In 1933-1934 on the basis of the GAZ-A was developed triaxial (GAS-TC, GAS-AAAA) and полугусеничная (GAS-A-Кегресс) of the machine.
In 1935 in air force units of the red army was tested fire truck based on the GAZ-A, developed by NATI, with водянымнасосом and boxes for the storage of fire hoses

Interesting facts
GAS-A - the most mass Soviet passenger car model of the first half of the 1930s, was delivered mainly public authorities and in the Red Army.
GAZ-A was the most mass-staff vehicle of the red Army in the 1930-ies. The GAZ-A was mounted, in particular, short-wave staff of the radio station 5-AK.
GAZ-A was the most mass model of a taxi the first half of the 1930s. Was equipped with an external meter (to starboard) mechanical type with a check mark to «free-busy». The conclusion from operation of these machines began to be implemented after the GAS-M-1. But in Leningrad, for example, GAS-A exploited in a taxi to March 1, 1938., and only after the order of the Presidium of the Leningrad city Council were sent from the city to the periphery.
Cars GAZ " AND participated in the rally Moscow - Karakum-Moscow (1933) and successfully overcame more than 9.5 thousand km.
In Leningrad, Moscow and operation of GAS-A was banned after 1936, but a small car owners were ordered to surrender the GAS-A the state and with surcharge buy a new GAS-M-1, it was done for reasons of obsolete GAS-A by 1936 and неблаговидности the appearance of the car of an old design in a large city.

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