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Moskvich - 410

Moskvich-410 - Soviet-wheel-drive passenger car of the raised passableness, published v1957-1961, at the Moscow plant of small cars (МЗМА). It was actually four-wheel-drive option sedans Moskvich-402 and Moskvich-407 with reinforced bearing body, and other modifications, oriented for the needs of the rural population. In 1959-1960, also produced a four-wheel drive station wagon Moskvich-411. Output of vehicles in МЗМА was stopped in the beginning of 60-s in connection with a lack of plant production capacities in connection with the growth of export program «Moskvich-407». All in 1957-1961, it was manufactured 7580 copies of the «Moskvich-410» and «Moskvich-410Н» and 1515 - Moskvich-411».

The concept and the history of
Soon after the beginning of the campaign of development of virgin lands, in connection with the need for rapid repair of equipment in the field, the question arose about the provision of machine-operators of private vehicles. GAZ-69 for these purposes is not viable in view of excessive fuel consumption. In 1955, at the Gorky automobile plant were created, the first prototypes M72, luxury SUV on the basis of the processed the body «Victory» and units of the GAZ-69. The idea of SUVs on the basis of passenger cars accounted for liking the top leadership of the party.
In 1956, has started development of a prototype М73, the main difference from the previous one was that he was created from scratch, without reference to any body. The engine and a number of units was borrowed отМосквича-402. However, because of the absence at the time the GAS sufficient production capacities, all the achievements were transferred to the МЗМА, machine in a series launched was not.
Not counting a number of design innovations (for example, a two-stage transfer case) the new SUV in many respects copied Moskvich-402. In the first quarter of 1957, Moskvich-410 was launched into serial production.
Mass exploitation of the 410-th identified a number of defects (see. Design defects), so almost immediately наМЗМА the work was begun on the creation of an entirely new all-wheel drive of «Moskvich». The first prototype was assembled in 1957. Both appearance and design of a prototype like an American jeep Willys MB. In 1958, the body has been changed - a prototype with a canvas convertible was given the name of «Moskvich-415». In 1960, was designed model with a steel body - Moskvich-416.
In 1961, with the change of leadership МЗМА, were changed priorities. The plant management has been adopted the resolution on the termination of development of the cross-country vehicles and the increase of the production of the Muscovite-407, are in demand in the West. 415-th and 416-th have not been launched in the series.Review of design
Externally, the 410-th differed from 402-th of the same, than the M-72 different from a normal Victory: the body of the car was markedly elevated above the level of the road and when viewed from the front was well visible leading the front axle. In addition, the wheels were set tires with developed грунтозацепами.
In comparison with 402 model «Muscovite-410» received a reinforced body, adopted the steering mechanism of the «Victory», the lubrication system of the engine was equipped with oil radiator, the front axle used joints of equal angular velocity of the type «Bendix-Weiss». Specially for the 410-th was designed two-stage transfer case. Telescopic shock absorbers were replaced by the worm. The last more suitable for operation in off-road terrain. The 410-th were installed tires larger dimension 6,40-15" with the special «jagged» tread pattern. Road clearance has been increased up to 220 mm, that the raised passableness. The car could overcome Ford depth up to 0.5 m and the rise of a gradient of up to 33 degrees. We have selected different than in the Moscvich-402, transfer ratios, resulting in improved traction quality, but fell maximum speed (with 105-115 km/h of the 402-th up to 85 - the 410-th).
When 2377-millimeter wheelbase length of the car was equal to 4055 a millimeter. The width of it was the same 154 cm, that of the 402-th Inhabitant, but the height, in view of the much greater clearance (220 mm against 180 the 407-th), reached 1685 millimeters - average growth of the then Soviet men. 
The car had трехобъемный four-door carrying the body type sedan with a strong motor, Luggage and passenger compartments. The body of this was a tough spatial farm, to which were directly mounted engine and units of chassis. Farm welded into a single node from a few large units. To increase the overall rigidity and strength of the engine compartment and pop body grew a pair of fixed longitudinal box-section Assembly, connected in front of the cross-bar. All permanent connection of the body were welded, made contact welding; and in some places these connections are strengthened arc or gas welding. The basic details of the lining of the housing штамповались of sheet steel with a thickness of 0.8 - 1.1 mm. Compared with the standard body for Muscovites 402, 403, 407 and stiffness of the body to the 410-th of the Muscovite was greatly enhanced.
The hood of the engine compartment was аллигаторного type. He was a big one forged part, to which to increase its rigidity were welded transverse and diagonal amplifiers. To the hood of a suspended from the two inner loops and secured with a lock in front of his. Pen drive of the castle was located inside the body. To prevent opening the hood on the move in the wrong pulling the handles of the lock, in its design envisaged a special fuse.The design of front and rear of the body was virtually the same, but the rear doors have decorative выштамповки, such as those that were available at the Volga GAZ-21. Key lock only the front left door - the others were blocked from inside of the turn of the handle of the door to the refusal down.
Storage compartment, located in the rear part of the body, can be opened with the help of the handle, located under the seat cushion of the rear seat on the right side. It is interesting, that in a closed lid of the trunk at the same time is complete and the bracket rear registration plate, under which was a plug cap 35-litre fuel tank.
The vehicle was equipped with a rear view mirror, set in the upper part of the windscreen; the glove box, made from waterproof cardboard; heater for heating the body and the windscreen; washer windshield, who worked on foot pump, located at the floor, to the left of the clutch pedal.
In addition to this in the cabin was a radio type A-17A, what a шестиламповый dual band superheterodyne, designed for reception of local and distant broadcast stations in the medium and long waves. The scope of the receiver included, in addition to the receiver, power supply unit PSU-12, speaker of the reflectivity of the Board and the antenna cable. However, the receiver seriously interfere with the noise from the ignition system.
In spite of the great need for such cars inside the country, one-third of the 410-x Muscovites went for export. There was even a pravorulnaya modification of the Muscovite 410П supplied in the UK and Australia. Facing the radiator in cars of a normal and export performance varied significantly. The car, designed for Soviet citizens lining was a tough forged grille with only the top of the decorative lining. In the export of the same version of the lining was not. But in the export version there were side decorative plates, on which were the front position lamps.
The car was equipped with an in-line four-cylinder верхнеклапанным карбюраторным engine models 407-D with the degree of compression, equal 7 units. Motor this was a very modernized version of the same engine-38, who was the pre-war German Opel-Кадетте. In the USSR this engine was initially set at МЗМА-400, then, when he appeared 402 Muscovite, cylinders of the engine squandered up to 72 mm diameter. Its working volume was equal to 1221 cubic centimeter, and at 4500 rpm motor gave quite a decent at the time of the 35-strong power, enabling the car to have a maximum speed of 95 km/h. This was at 10 km/h less than the standard 402-th Inhabitant, but for the motorists of greater importance was cross - asphalt was then not everywhere, and to main the prospectus had to get on the road. Then, the driver and connected the front axle, included in razdatke a lower gear and, stirring the dirt, out to the prospectus.The engine that worked on petrol A-72, стоившем in those years 54 pre-reform kopecks per liter. Travel away on public transport in the same days worth 50 pre-reform kopecks. At the rate of 6.5 liters per 100 km (in the standard for those times the speed of 40 km/h and is switched off the front bridge) mission in length of 14.25 km (the distance from Moscow ring road to Taganskaya square on Рязанскому prospectus or from Almaty to Abay Avenue to Avenue Seifullin) was more cost-effective than a trip by public transport. And if a motorist was driving, but not one завозил on the work of the wife, the profitability was increased twice. In 1958, the 410-th modernized, putting on his motor from Масквича-407. Cylinders of the engine squandered up to 76 mm diameter. Working volume amounted to 1361 cubic centimeter, and capacity increased up to 45 HP.
Production of four-wheel drive Muscovites lasted from 1957 to 1962. During this time there were produced 11 890 vehicles, including about 1.5 thousand of universals Moskvich-411. Renovated in 1958, the «Moskvich-410Н» and universal «Moskvich-411», production of which started a year later, got a new more powerful engine and 4-speed gearbox from «Moskvich-407». Gear reducer of the main transmission rear axle has been reduced (but in this power range transmission increased from 8.25 to 8.9), which increased the maximum speed of 10 km/h. «Moskvich-410» all the same was not a full-fledged SUV, which was published at the same time, GAZ-69. In the operating instructions clearly indicate that a four-wheel drive car «Moskvich-410» «is characterized only by the high cross, but it's not a car-cart, so don't try to use them in the most severe road and in conditions that are not appropriate to their capabilities.»

Design defects
Because of the high position of centre of gravity of Moscow-410 was unstable on the road. So, when cornering at high speeds or side lurches car was prone to tip over.
Body design was not sufficiently tight. When operating in off-road terrain with very high load power elements of the body quickly «tired» and could burst.
Despite all this, many instances of the car quite successfully survived to the present day and are in working condition.

Technical characteristics
Dimensions, mm
length x width x height 4055x1540x1683
base 2377
The layout of the
front engine
the drive wheels front and rear
The body sedan
Maximum speed, km/h 90
The engine of the "Moskvich-402", gasoline, carburetor, in-line
the number of cylinders 4
working volume 1220 cm3
number of valves 8
the location of the lower
power, HP/kW 35/25,7 at 4200 rpm
Gearbox three-stage, two-stage transfer box - two-stage
front axle, the longitudinal springs
rear axle, the longitudinal springs
Brakes hydraulic
front drum
back drum
Electrical Equipment 12 In
Tire size 6.40-15

Moskvich-410 (1957-1958) - basic sedan with a body and the engine of «Moskvich-402»;
Moskvich-410Н (1958-1961) - advanced sedan with a body and the engine of «Moskvich-407»;
Moskvich-411 (1959-1961) - wagon with a body of «Moskvich-423Н»;
Moskvich-431 (1960) - a truck with a body of «Moskvich-430», was made the only prototype. 

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