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Moskvich - 408

«Moskvich-408» - Soviet passenger car of a small class.
Produced in Moscow at the factory МЗМА, later renamed as AZLK, from September 1964 to December 1975. From 1964 to 1967, he was the main model of the plant, after which it was replaced in this role, «Moskvich-412», though, and after that they have long been produced in parallel. He also produced in Izhevsk from 1966 to 1967, there were gathered only about 4,000 cars of this model, after which the Izhevsk plant, in contrast to the МЗМА-AZLK, completely moved on to the issue of the upgraded models of the «Moskvich-412».
«Moskvich-408» - the founder of the third generation of cars «Moskvich».
Compared with their predecessors, have increased the length and width of the vehicle while significantly reducing its height, significantly increased the capacity and comfort of the interior, became much better visibility from the driver's seat has become more rational accommodation of the driver and passengers. To a lesser extent, but substantially improved and the performance of stability, controllability. Became more powerful the engine, which accounts for slightly improved dynamic quality. Brake dynamics in comparison with the last models of the previous generation has remained approximately at the same level.
There was a «transition» model - the «Moskvich-403» (1963-65), which matches the body and the engine of the previous generation to the basic technical elements of the future model «408».
The body of the base model - self-supporting, all-metal, such as «four-door sedan». There were a version with a body «five-door station wagon», выпускавшаяся under the name of «Moskvich-426», and the van on its basis - Moskvich-433», as well as numerous modifications.
«408-th» was stylish and modern by the standards of the mid-sixties design, have a sufficiently high level of comfort and equipment for their time and class. However, the car kept out of date and is not enough powerful нижневальный engine, inherited from the previous models of the «Muscovites».
Until the end of the sixties, he enjoyed good demand abroad, and more than half of the output was exported, including in the developed capitalist countries, in particular, in 1965, a year - about 45 % of the issue, in 1967 - about 51 %, in 1969 - about 64 % (last - in view of the model -412).
In Scandinavia, the car is sold as a Moskvich Carat, in France - as Moskvitch Elite 1360, in England (produced by special pravorulnaya version) - as Moskvich 408, in Germany - as Moskwitsch, in Finland - as Moskvitsh Elite.
In Bulgaria the car going from the Soviet kits under the designation of Rila 1400. In Belgium, the Assembly was carried out by firm Scaldia-Volga for cars in many Western European countries, sometimes under its own brand as Scaldia 408, Scaldia 1360, Scaldia 1400 or Scaldia Elita, and part of the car Belgian Assembly was completed with the European diesel engines.Until 1969 the «Muscovites» models -408 and -412 keep the body of the sample 1964 - the round headlights and the vertical tail lamps. Since 1967 he has undergone some structural changes, as on the part of the car began to install the engine model-412.
In 1969, and the M-408, and to M-412 appeared the body of a new pattern, with rectangular headlamps production of the GDR, horizontal tail lamps with triangular indexes of turns and improved passive safety, after which the designation of both models have been added letters «ie», denoting compliance with the European standards of passive safety («And») and the potential for export («e»).
«Moskvich-408» was the first Soviet car, subjected to crash-test.

History of creation
Development of car started in 1959 (designer - B. With. Ivanov).
Particular attention in the design was focused on the design, as many of the technical solutions of the car inherited from the previous generation, which is in the process of its production is continuously updated, resulting in a well-series in 1963 model Moskvich-403, still had the old body of the sample 1956, already contained the main technical elements of the future «408-th».
At an early stage designers used an interesting technique: plasticine layout was carried out directly on the surface of the body «live» serial «Moskvich-407». Subsequently had already passed to the construction of conventional full-size mock-UPS. There were not less than three variants of appearance, and many different search engines conceptual sketches. At the same time with the base sedan was under development options with a body «versatile person», «van», «coupe» and «convertible». The first prototypes had «a two-storey» registration of the front, as the previous model, and 15-inch wheel rims. Subsequently, for reasons of improving the appearance of the car wheels size was reduced to 13," and the radiator grille has become a-row, as the most modern at the moment of serial models of Western firms.
In 1961-1963 years there were built a four-car-prototypes with different variants of registration, were tested. Subsequently, it was built several prototypes have already any prototype and, in appearance, very close to the future production car.
The first production copies of the «Moskvich-408» descended from the conveyor in September 1964, and in 1966, the Assembly line has already gone hundred-thousandth of a car of this model (he was an export version «-408Э» with improved external design and a more powerful engine).In the aggregate of special innovations were not observed. As already mentioned, many of the components and technical solutions «Moskvich-408» inherited from the already published at the time of the models of the previous generation - M-407 and in particular of the «transitional» M-403: overhead valve engine (net of some minor differences like the new two-chamber carburetor K-126), четырехступенчатую gearbox with a switch located on the steering column lever through shaft, концентричный operator (and not located on the side of his line as the M-402 and M-407), front suspension with two ball joints with each the parties (the M-402 and M-407 suspension was made on each side of the one ball joint and one cylindrical finger), brake with automatic adjustment («самоподводом»), and so on. These components were developed relatively recently and is constantly improved, so it is quite consistent with the level of technology. Such a policy of the gradual introduction of new units and assemblies through the «transition» model, without a radical restructuring of production facilities, with more modest opportunities МЗМА compared with, for example, the Gorky plant, which in those years could afford to build cars from scratch, almost without borrowing technical solutions with the previous generation of«Volga» GAZ-21 in respect of «Victory», «Chaika» GAZ-13 concerning Winters).

For the time of its release the vehicle has repeatedly been substantially upgraded. The most important were the following upgrades:
Restyling of the December 1969; then the car began to collect in the new body, which had otherwise making front - rectangular headlamps, new front, a new grille, other changes, and tailgate - rectangular taillights with triangular direction-indicator lamps, and so on. The same body at the same time and «Moskvich-412».
Prior to that, «Moskvich-408» and «Moskvich-412» were issued in the old, «408-m» on the back of the truck, but to model Moskvich-412 it was slightly modified for the installation of a new 1.5-liter 75-strong engine (is more exact, there were two variants of the body: early 408-th, which, when necessary, adapted to the installation of the 412-th motor, and, from a certain moment, the so-called «unified», which preserves the external decoration similar to the previous option, but already adapted for installation of both versions of the power unit, without any alteration; in December 1969 he was replaced as well as a unified body, but already with the new external design).
It should be particularly noted that there is no «transition» modification of M-408 to 412: both cars were produced in parallel and parallel passed through stages of modernization, although in the latter's «412 of the» usual and was in the lead. The production of both cars was stopped at the same time, with the transition to the production of vehicles of the M-2140 / 2138, and subsequently the issue of the vehicles of this family with 412-m and 408-m motors was conducted under the new labeling also in parallel. So sometimes found designation M-408 late in the body as a kind of «transition» option not based on anything.New body correspond to the European standards of passive safety, and therefore the theoretical any M-408 or -412 in this body could be exported, reflecting the designation of modernized vehicles, to which were added the letters of ie (decoding see below, in the section «Modification»).
Modernization of 1971, when a new instrument panel, fully enclosed plastic soft grip; and may (or July), 1973, when the car got a new mechanism of selection of gear with floor lever and a short underground curtain.
The rest of modernization did not have such a significant impact on the appearance and consumer properties of the car. A complete list of changes, вносившихся in the design of the vehicle, compiled by the club of the owners of the «Muscovites», is available here.

Estimation of the model
Prior to the appearance of «Zhiguli», «Moskvich» was the only one in the USSR publicly family car. More compact machines (motorcycles or «Zaporozhets») have never had in the USSR such popularity, which they won in Western Europe (where the mass motorization happened at the expense of such cars - Volkswagen Kaefer («bug»), Citroen 2CV, Fiat 600, and so forth), and is not considered to be a full-fledged means of transport, and machinery larger (for example, «Volga»), which constituted the majority in the North American continent, were sold to the population in limited quantities, so it is cars of this class - «Muscovites», and, later, IZH and «Zhiguli» - began in the USSR and then in Russia for real folk. Among the drivers of M-408 was known as a strong, reliable and sufficiently durable machine with the tough body and suspension.
M-408 produced for a long time, until 1976, and looked, in spite of the successful restyling at the turn of decades, by the end of not modern. It should be noted that many successful European cars of those years were issued for a period of not shorter period; for example, одноклассный with Muscovite Peugeot 304 produced from 1969 to 1980, FIAT-124 (prototype Lada) was produced in Italy from 1966 to 1974, the French SIMCA 1300/1500 - from 1963 to 1975, and so on.
It can be noted and a number of drawbacks (from the position of the second half of the sixties) - a relatively small width of the body and interior, small track wheels at relatively high altitude; cat with несинхронизированной the first transmission, with a relatively high noisiness and drive through the link; obsolete for the beginning of the 1970s salon; outdated system of brakes and the absence of the amplifier; lack of encountering on European cars of this class in the 1960s options (equipment for an additional fee) as: the interior of a higher level (cloth, velour, leather), front disc brakes, semi-automatic gearbox (for example, an analog of the system Saxomat) or fully automatic transmission; the need to шприцевания front suspension (to eliminate from its design threaded bushing with may 1969).Description of design and construction
«Moskvich-408» was produced in versions with bodies of the «four-door sedan», «the five-door station wagon» and « - door wagon.» Coupe and convertible on its basis have been developed, but not issued. Not produced in the car and in the back of «two-door sedan, at the time mostly for European car of this class.
«Moskvich-408» became the ancestor of the third post-war generation of cars «Moskvich».
The design of the car was rather conservative and simple in view of orientation mainly for low-skilled maintenance and repair by the owner.

The interior was typical for European cars of the first half of the sixties. Flat roof panel and the small slope of the glass made it possible to substantially increase the useful volume in comparison with the previous body of the «Muscovites», but the width of the interior was still small. But in General for the overall dimensions of the car salon is large enough, experts of the British magazine The Motor noted, that for its length machine unexpectedly big thanks to «овертикаленной» landing of the driver and passengers, and a relatively high body. This effect is further visually mighty good selection of colors upholstery and a large area of glazing. The last car was obliged to, and good visibility, which was also noted by foreign experts.
In contrast to many European models (for example, the same Fiat 124, then there is a VAZ-2101), the «Moskvich» niches of the front wheels did not go into the salon due to the location of their axis forward, increasing the comfort and allowed convenient place pedals, pushing the clutch pedal and brake pedal to the left (The «Zhiguli» pedals was heavily constrained by the width of the «hump» on the left front wheel).
The place in the back of the couch was somewhat constrained by the width of the outstanding beauty of the arches of the rear wheels - with the comfort of rear could sit only two people, but it was typical for the most up the time. Compared with the M-407, rear sofa has become wider and comfortable due to the decrease of the arches of the rear wheels through the use of wheels of a smaller size. Concave backrests of the front seats provide sufficient space for rear passengers feet - from measurements conducted by the British magazine The Motor, even when fully moved one back of the front seats of the man 180 cm sat back with reserve.The main finishing materials, the interior was painted in the body color metal and кожзаменитель (one or two colors). Color solution of the interior were quite diverse. Export options have a wider range of colours for the interior.
Plastic parts were originally few. In 1966, the car has received in order to improve safety, soft, plastic lining on the instrument panel, February, 1969 - and-pillar, and since 1971, the instrument panel has received a coherent soft cover made of plastic.
Until January 1968, the vehicle had a front seat of the диванного type with separate backs, later - separate seats for driver and front passenger. The backs of both options were laid out in a steady, but relatively short sleeping place. Planting by the standards of those years was quite convenient and high - much higher than in the later models of «VAZ», but still lower than in the GAS-21 or the previous model of «Moskvich». The experts of the Motor in 1966 noted a high enough level of comfort «Moskvich-408».
Comfort, equipment and decoration of the interior is quite meet the standards of those years for low-cost family car. Кожзамовая finish was practical, elegant, durable and easy to clean, even though it was less than comfortable in comparison with fabric finishing previous models of the «Muscovites» - the experts of The Motor point out the need to covers on the seats in hot weather.
The shortcomings (from the position of the sixties) can be considered as a small cabin width, lack of allowing direct the flow of air deflectors ventilation (which, in the opinion of the experts of THE MOTOR, to a large extent compensated by the presence in the glazing of the front doors of the large «Windows»), the lack of versions with the finish of a higher class - velour or skin (which had many European classmates), in addition, the quality of the plastic soft lining in those versions, which they have, was quite low.
Relatively little attention, compared with European models of development of the second half of the sixties, was paid to security issues - for example, steering column was originally without the possibility of телескопирования on impact, the instrument panel and steering wheel had a soft upholstery, many of the details of the interior were protruding and did not involve the destruction of the application of a certain efforts.
However, security has been improved as the modernization of the vehicle during its production - in particular, in the late sixties appeared soft padding on the instrument panel and pillars of the body, in the early seventies, fully upholstered instrument panel, «safe» steering column and steering wheel with soft grip on the wheel hub, more secure controls with rounded edges. Exterior
As was already mentioned, the design of the vehicle when it was paid to the development of quite a lot of attention.
In contrast round, «cartouche» contour of the body of his predecessors, «Moskvich-408» became the first Soviet car, made in the European style of the first half of the sixties, with such its characteristic, given the works of the Italian кузовщиков foreign decades, elements, as «hovering» flat roof panel, supported by slender columns, panoramic Windows of the large area, narrow vertical tail lights with small sharp плавничками on the edges of the lid and graceful scope of the door glass with gleaming pads. Stylistic solution of the car was quite distinctive and characteristic. Comparing it with the «Muscovite» of the previous generation, it is difficult to believe that «408-th» only a few centimeters surpasses its predecessor in length and width, is due to the peculiarities of its design, the new Soviet car looked bigger and more solid than it actually was.
Body panels have had enough of complex curved shapes. They штамповались of relatively thick metal, which contributed to the increase of rigidity of a body and its corrosion resistance price increase in mass of the vehicle.
Moskvich-408 originally was coloured in a variety of colors, including two-tone combination. The first serial sample was, apparently, color black with beige interior. Subsequently, the issue of the two-colour of Muscovites was terminated, as was the fashion for such a colouring. Also in two colors Muscovites painted foreign dealers, such as the Scaldia-Volga S.A. (Belgium) or Konela (Finland). Occasionally there are even cars with a dealership vinyl finishing of the roof.
Among the characteristic features of the body «Moskvich-408» the following can be noted:
Relatively high stiffness of the body, caused by the need to ensure the durability of the operating conditions on bad roads;
Detachable wings to facilitate the body repair;
Filler neck of the fuel tank was located in the middle of the rear panel, providing convenient refueling the vehicle with any party; the access hole filler shut the lid, the castle which had the drive from the driver's seat;
Big enough headroom, conditioned by the increased in comparison with foreign analogues clearance, and peculiarities of the layout, in particular more овертикаленной
landing of the driver and passengers in the cabin at compared with cars, developed in the second half of the sixties, such as the prototype of «Zhiguli» Fiat 124;The windshield has a very large bending and was delivered almost vertically; it improved the visibility and increased space, but reduced the effectiveness of the wiper blades;
The front of the rack were flat and oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, which improved the front view;
The back window was; panoramic view from the car ago was excellent, and the edges of the fins to facilitate manoeuvring of the reverse;
Glass doors were flat, and the doors are quite thin.
The experts of The Motor, noted that the high-raised, well defined corners of the car facilitate «the feeling of the car» when manoeuvring in their view, this makes the machine exceptionally comfortable when driving in dense traffic, the rear and on close Parking.
Luggage compartment was not too great (372 liter) and had a larger loading height, which reduced the convenience of using it. The spare tire was flat on its bottom to the right, further reducing the usable space of the cargo compartment. The transitional model of the spare wheel was inclined to the right, resting on the lower part of the small cavity to the right of the tank to the bottom of the trunk.
Export versions of Moskvich-408 had a large number of chrome-plated and polished parts of decoration, often (but not always) - четырехфарную system front lighting.

Power unit

The engine of «Moskvich-408» is not significantly different from the motors of the models of the «403» and «407», though, and had many upgrades and improvements.
The cylinder block due to technological reasons constructively ascended to the first post-war models of the «Muscovites» (and, consequently, to Opel cadet model 1938), but even starting with the model M-407» the volume of the cylinder was increased up to 1 358 cm3 and he got a brand new aluminum head with the vicissitudes up valve, which helps to improve the filling of cylinders and increase the capacity of up to 45 HP.
The «Moscvich-408» is used even more rapid version of the same unit (50 to 55 HP at 4 750 rpmmin). The main difference from the models of the «407» and «403» was applied to M-408 double chamber carburetor K-126 (in those years, not very often found in this class of constructive solution).
Engine power, at the time, was sufficient, but only for a complete set of the initial level. So was subsequently developed модификацияМосквич-412 (1967), which was a completely new aluminium верхневальный engine with 75 HP. Engine M-408 was characterized by the stably good traction characteristics (maximum torque was of 91.2 N*m and is achieved in a broad range of 2 750 to 3 200 rpmmin).Because of the car in 1966, experts of the British magazine The Motor came to the conclusion that the maximum speed of the «Moskvich-408» (129 km/h according to the results of measurements of the magazine) is for those years, «worthy of respect» (in its price category of the car was one of the most fast approaching for this indicator to the models of a higher class like a Morris Oxford), but разгонная dynamics seemed to them it was not. In addition, there was a slight start the engine without even the cover of the air valve - they make the assumption that it is intended to start in really cold weather, making reference to the severe climatic conditions in most parts of the territory of the USSR.
Supplied complete with part of the «Muscovites» for the internal market of the old «408-m» motor continued until the beginning of the eighties. Not providing good enough even by the standards of those years dynamics, he was unpretentiousness in the first place, low insistence to quality of fuel and lubricants, good traction at low engine speeds, positively влиявшей for patency, and was easier and more affordable in the repair of the forces of the owner, which made it more popular option for use in rural areas far from gas stations with the «92-m» petrol and service stations.

The transmission was a three-way, four -, with synchronizers in the II, III and IV programs, model M-407, only the rear it was forged and was placed on the rear surface of the Carter administration, and not the end of the extension. Slightly changed the gear selector on the side of the cover, he became a cast and a little longer. On a side лючке, covered блочок gears reverse with his fork, stood the light switch reverse gear. Was radically redesigned the only mechanism of management of the switch gear - shaft mechanism was concentric a tubular steering shaft, which allowed to considerably reduce the level of vibration of a lever in comparison with separate roller, standing in the M-407. The same mechanism is used in the transitional model of the m-403.
Up to may (or June), 1972, the management of transmission carried out with the help of a lever on the steering column (except with modifications), later - floor lever.
In the opinion of the experts of the magazine THE MOTOR, gearbox «Moskvich-408» was a little too noisy at all transfers, in addition to direct the fourth - on the second and third gears switching mechanism transferred to the salon a slight noise, which managed to eliminate a simple weighting of leverage; some confusion for the British cause also несинхронизированная the first time (although in this «Moskvich» and was not the only one in the European car of those years).As noted, the last disadvantage was compensated by a very rare need to enable it - according to British experts, when driving in normal conditions for starting place is quite enough of the second transmission and, in General, well-chosen gear ratios of the transmission.
Shift required a bit redundant, by European standards, the efforts, especially at the необкатанном car, but the clutch pedal (with hydraulic drive) was, on the assessment of the British, the relatively «easy» - an effort for her not exceeded 32 pounds (about 16 kg).
You need to consider what version for England had a floor lever, and not located on the steering column, as the леворульной modifications to the spring of 1972, respectively - a completely different mechanism of management with a short wings.

The front suspension is independent, бесшкворневая, параллелограмного type, a double wishbone. Axis levers were not established parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, as usual, but under a sufficiently large angle to it, which reduced the wobble. Until may 1969, suspension arms swinging at the threaded bushes, later - for the first time in the USSR - to not require lubrication резинометаллических hinges with a radial compression of rubber, that is on silent-blocks. Suspension is characterized by high strength and durability. Also for the first time in the USSR lower control arms were connected with rotary fists ball bearings. Earlier this suspension was used for the transition model of the M-403.
The rear suspension - dependent, leaf. Compared with the M-407 were increased length (50 mm) and width (5 mm) sheets, of springs, and the sheets became five instead of nine. This improved ride comfort and handling. Between the sheets were installed plastic противоскриповые gaskets, which eliminated the creak as the rear suspension and relieve the owner of the regular lubrication springs graphite grease.
Experts of the magazine The Motor on the results of the tests in 1966 marked very high the smoothness of the «Moskvich» and in General the adequate behaviour on the road.
The steering mechanism - глобоидальный worm with двухгребневым roller. Effort on the steering wheel was relatively small, between the outer positions of the steering wheel it took 3,6 turnover. Compared with the M-407 turning radius decreased by meter - from 6 to 5 m. Двухспицевый the wheel had утопленную to the security of the hub and repeated in the form used in the M-403, but when this was done not from the beige plastic («ivory»), and from a more consistent and long-lasting black. Would be more accurate to state that the M-403 used the steering wheel of 408-th of other material.Brakes - drum on all wheels, with hydraulic drive and, for the first time in the USSR, with automatic adjustment of clearances in bulk mechanisms.
In the opinion of the experts of the British magazine The Motor (1966), the force on the brake pedal and its free travel were a bit redundant, but the efficiency of the brakes still inferior to the modern «Muscovite» the Western European cars.
In the later versions of «Moskvich-408» this deficiency was corrected by the installation of the first hydro vacuum amplifier, produced under the license of the British company Girling, and then («Moskvich-2138»)- the vacuum amplifier design of the same company, operating in conjunction with disc brakes at the front.
Parking brake at the rear wheel, rope driven. Up to may 1973 extraction lever Parking brake was under the torpedo to the right of the steering column, and later - the - floor, between the front seats.
Bus - dimensional 6,00-13" (instead of used to the models of the family «402»-«403» 15-inch), the stamped steel wheels, diagonal, chamber or tubeless.
In addition to selling to the population, sedan Moskvich-408 used by the police and traffic police. Attempts were made to use the car (as a sedan, and wagon) in a taxi, but because of the lack of durability and close salon compared with cars «Volga» the success they had. Station wagons and vans widely used by trading organizations as развозных car and, in contrast to all on the basis of «Volga», were consumer goods, that is sold to the population, although not in very large quantities.

M-408 abroad
Moskvich-408 widely exported to many countries of the world. International debut in October 1964 at the London motor show in Earls Court Arena, and the next year started export of production cars. The following table gives the figures of production of cars «Moskvich» from 1964 to 1969, (the most successful period), with account of published until 1965 M-403 and after 1967 M-412.
Moskvich-408 was for many years the most exported Soviet car, until the end of the 1960-ies on the export of spent more than half of the cars produced.
Export modifications are often (but not always) have четырехфарную the lining of the radiator, a more powerful engine (55 HP), often improved interior. Exports went to, including, and in Western Europe, mainly to Belgium, Netherlands, France, the Scandinavian countries, Finland, to a lesser extent, the United Kingdom and other countries.Widely used rebranding. In France and some other countries of the car sold under the name Moskvitch Elite («Elite») or Elita, as the rooms with zero in the middle (like 404, 405, 408, etc.) were legally reserved firm «Peugeot» for their models. In Scandinavia M-408 sold under the brand Moskvitch Carat.
According to the European standards of the «Moskvich» it was quite a solid machine (class family car - «family car»), buyers are attracted by the relatively low price, stylish appearance, good equipment, strong and tenacious design with a sufficiently high level of quality. In the Danish brochure 1967 slogan of «Moskvich» was the phrase - «Mære de Los Pinos, end den koster», that is, something like «cheap and cheerful», literally - «better than its price».
British magazine THE MOTOR according to the results of test-drive in 1966 characterize Moskvitch 408 as
...efficient, resilient and comfortable means of transport... a lot of car and the equipment for the price...
called it in General is very well designed car, and as a significant cons noted several redundant by Western standards for noise and vibration from the drivetrain and not synchronized first broadcast in box, «tight» brake without power and the mechanism of the shift, the relatively poor разгонную dynamics, as well as lack of attention to the issues of passive safety standards of the second half of the sixties.
Many of these shortcomings have been addressed in the serial production of МЗМА/AZLK in just a few years after they were written these lines - in the late sixties of the «Muscovites» the new gearbox with the synchronized the first speed and the new mechanism of the switch, brake with the hydro vacuum amplifier under the license of the British company «Girling», a brand new 75-strong motor, ensuring a good car even by Western standards dynamics, as well as secure the interior. Unfortunately, by this time, the machine was out of date as a whole, as an adequate replacement it and its derivative on the Assembly line was not followed up to the mid-eighties, which caused a relatively rapid withdrawal of «Moskvich» with just отбитого places on the Western European markets.
Norwegian magazine «Техникенс верльд» («the World of technology») in 1968 tested the M-408 survivability of 1240 km to the bad road conditions, which could find, and as a result of which, wrote that:
«Moskvich-Elite» can withstand ill-treatment, and even better than we could imagine. We can safely say that there are few in the world of machines, which brought to the test!
In Belgium, the «Muscovites» gathered from машинокомлектов in the factories of the company Scaldia-Volga S.A. and sold under the brand Scaldia 408. Part of the supplied with the diesel engines of foreign manufacture (English Perkins the working volume of 1.5 l., 34 HP).
«Muscovites» -408 and (later) -412 from 1966 to 1976 gathered in the NRB, then there is going to model -2140 and -2141 «Aleko».

Technical characteristics
Dimensions, mm
length x width x height 4090x1550x1440
base 2400
The layout of the
front engine
the drive wheels rear
The body sedan
Maximum speed, km/h 120
The engine МЗМА-408, gasoline, carburetor, in-line
the number of cylinders 4
working volume 1358 cm3
number of valves 8
the location of the upper
power, HP/kW 50/36,8 at 4750 rpm
A four-step gearbox
front independent, spring
rear axle, the longitudinal springs
Brakes hydraulic (from 1967 - with hydro vacuum amplifier)
front drum
rear drum
Electrical Equipment 12 In
Tyre size 6.00-13


The basic model
Moskvich-427ИЭ on the basis of the M-412ИЭ - outwardly indistinguishable from the products made in parallel and which contrasted with the main engine M-426ИЭ on the basis of a late M-408ИЭ.
Moskvich-408 - base sedan (since 1964).
Moskvich-408Б - with manual control.
Moskvich-408И - special export, corresponding to the European standards of safety.
Moskvich-408ИЭ - so marked all the later of the M-408 in the back of the 412 (they originally corresponded to European standards and, in theory, could be sold in Europe, which marked the letters of ie).Moskvich-408К - set for export.
Moskvich-408М sedan medical officer.
Moskvich-408П - right wheel PPC only the floor.
Moskvich-408Т - taxi.
Moskvich-408У - training, with extra pedals and applying цветографической schemes.
Moskvich-408Э - export, not necessarily with четырехфарной facing the radiator.
Moskvich-408Ю - in the tropical execution.
In addition, until 1969, there were two variants of design of a front of the car, with two round headlights of large diameter, or with four smaller. The latter is often met on cars, delivered for export, but has been used not only by them.
After 1969, there were also two variants of design of a front - with the lattice in the small and in the large cage, and the second also occurs more often in export cars than the issued for the domestic market.

On the basis of 408 with other bodies
Moskvich-426 - base station wagon (from 1967 to 1976).
Moskvich-426М - universal medical service.
Moskvich-426Т - universal-taxi.
Moskvich-426Э - export station wagon.
Moskvich-426К - universal-set.
Moskvich-426Ю - wagon in the southern performance.
Moskvich-426И - similarly 408И.
Moskvich-426ИЭ - similarly 408ИЭ.
Moskvich-426П - RHD wagon, released a little.
Moskvich-433 - van (from 1966).
The car Moskvich-433 had the whole rear wings and the beautiful corrugated panel in place of Windows. The first variants of the Muscovite-433 had a blank wall with a small round window between the cockpit and cargo compartment. Later the upper half of the walls were removed, turned out the rail height on the back of the seat. Now you can get fast to and from the cockpit. Baggage door consisted of two parts: the upper rose, the lower tossed down. The upper panel could have a glass of station wagon, or instead of him was corrugated steel panel.
Experienced and несерийные modification
Moskvich-408 «Tourist» - 2-door coupe-cabriolet with uprated engine (2 copies)
Pickup - altered the plant handicraft methods for internal needs.
In 1964, the experimental were created two samples of the «Moskvich-408-Tourist», reminiscent of the popular in those years in Europe cheap sports cars on the basis of serial up. It was a two-door hardtop convertible with a removable plastic horse riding, uprated engine with electronic fuel injection development ЦНИИТА (in one copy)of, glazed front door without a framework and capacity of 2+2. The bottom of the convertible was strengthened with the X-shaped cross-bar.
In a series of the machine is not started. The main reason was the total workload of the conveyor the issue of the basic model. Previously for the same reason were removed from the production of four-wheel drive version of the «Muscovites» M-410 and M-411. Prototypes are not preserved.
Were not serial and pickup trucks, which were remade of serial production of machines for the internal warehouse needs (there are rumors that the fate of the pickup was closing machine with a defective vehicles and they were used not only on the territory of the AZLK, but sold). 

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