Main

Registration

Login
Новости Авто и мото
Вторник, 17.10.2017, 21:23
Welcome Гость | RSS
Site menu
Салат Лошадка
Салат "Лошадка" Ингредиенты: 1 банка зеленого горошка, 3 морковки, 3 яйца, 1

Целебные свойства фейхоа
Целебные свойства фейхоа

Смотрите онлайн фильм Форсаж 6 в хорошем качестве и совершенно бесплатно!
Смотрите онлайн фильм Форсаж 6 в хорошем качестве и совершенно бесплатно!
Advise friends
Statistics
Login form



Moskvich - 2140

Moskvich-2140 - Soviet passenger car of a small class, produced in Moscow at the factory AZLK with 1976по 1988. Was a deeply modernized version of the model Moskvich-412.
In General, while maintaining the design of the M-412, the car has received more modern and better decorated salon (especially in the version of the SL), improved external design, смотревшееся in the second half of the seventies regarding appropriate, a more perfect and efficient brake system with disk mechanisms at the front. However, net of cosmetic changes in the car kept the back of his predecessor, and together with it - many of its shortcomings.
The car has occupied the first places in a rating of preferences of buyers in the domestic market, and on the outside was presented in very limited quantities. It was the period of the release M-2140 linked the beginning of the «dark ages» for AZLK. Nevertheless, the model is still sold and is fairly well known outside the USSR, including in Europe, especially in the traditionally who purchased a lot of Soviet cars countries, such as Finland and Greece, or in Scandinavia. «Screwdriver» Assembly of M-2140 from the Soviet kits was carried out in the town of Lovech (Bulgaria) in the 1976-1986, in the amount of up to 20 thousand per year.
Widely used the services of the state, both in the USSR and beyond.


History of creation
By the mid-seventies AZLK was in a quandary.
The basic model - Moskvich-412 - quickly becomes outdated. Attempts to develop a fundamentally new car, intermediate class between the «Muscovite» and «Volga», because of lack of financing and a number of other problems were not crowned with success (see article Muscovites series of 3-5 and Muscovites C series). The export of the «Muscovites» rapidly declining. «Muscovites» differed quite modern engine and, partly, chassis, but had outdated body and archaic equipment salon.
At least partly correct these shortcomings and «pull up» the production of AZLK to the level of VAZ, as well as several revive exports should have planned a large-scale modernization of the basic model.
The works were started in 1975. From the very start was carried out modernization of the body for both families - Moskvich-1500» and «Moskvich-1360», were the logical continuation of the well-known and has long made models of the M-412 and M-408. Units and components of basic machines, except for the engine, clutch, provided for the same.
The first production of the M-2140 began to descend from the conveyor in 1976. Later, after the beginning of production has started development of a modification of the «Lux» (SL), primarily aimed at export markets.Participated in its elaboration designer Igor Zaitsev in an interview with the magazine «auto review», recalls: «Perhaps, it is the Suite has managed almost everything that could be done. This project first in America have ordered. The Americans made a demonstration model of the interior, albums chic brought... However, play an interior in a series of failed, would - there were a lot of elementary ergonomic mistakes. Paid for this work 80 thousand dollars. Our men, when they found out in shock were: «If we paid, at least 80 thousand roubles, - we would have them do!» And they did then. Only door trim left «American» - and those with modifications. Suite made in cooperation with the Yugoslavs: they supplied us components, and we were paying machines. The interior was nice to see. The only pity is that very few are able to estimate how much invested into it forces, knowledge, experience...»


Estimation of the model
With in the seventies serious political pressure from the higher authorities in terms of increasing production of highly rare products, AZLK, unfortunately, has not received sufficient funds for the modernization of production, although the level of R & d at the factory was enough high and allowed to create their own perspective model of the third group of small - of the first group of the middle classes, not previously производившуюся domestic automobile plants (in this class in those years was, for example, BMW 5-th series in the back of the E12, the design of which is carefully studied at AZLK in the early seventies). Work on these cars were conducted at the plant since the late sixties.
In accordance with the new GOST рестайлинговый sedan Muscovite with engine UZAM-412 received индексМосквич-2140, the version with the engine M-408 was designated as a Muscovite-2138. Model has a streamlined body with a more modern design of the front and rear parts and new, the safety requirements of the mid-seventies, the lighting industry. In addition, Moskvich-2140 was equipped with meeting international standards front disc brakes, staples which had two pairs of working cylinders, and vacuum. System light-signalling replenished alarm; stop lamps and direction indicators day shone more brightly, but at night to prevent blinding of drivers behind-reaching machines they were weaker. Transition to night mode comes automatically when you turn on outdoor lighting. In addition sedans, there were also modernized the Muscovites with a body type of a wagon. Moskvich-wagon with a 412-m engine called Muscovite-2137, and his counterpart from 408-m motor received называниеМосквич-2136. External his difference from the model 2137 was no door handles on the rear doors are opened, they could only from the inside.Traditionally it is believed that this car was produced only in a single copy, but since it is such a Muscovite-2136 with deprived of the handles of the rear doors is now not in the factory Museum, and in the next yard, it is doubtful whether this statement corresponds to reality. However, the model of 2138 already initially was not sufficiently competitive in the external markets. Firstly, the engine M-408 already in the mid-70 was considered obsolete and low-power, which did not provide sufficient dynamic qualities. Secondly, the same, the race for the increase in production volumes at AZLK led to a significant drop in the quality of components, painting and Assembly, which became noticeable to consumers even on the domestic market, and the fact they, like time, with the development of a new model. As a result of these two factors, a well-known on the world market brand Moskvich literally within a few months 1976-1977 years has lost its competitive position and further restricted the export of Muscovites-2138 was available almost exclusively to the COMECON countries, as well as in the framework of the humanitarian supplies to the countries of the third world. So in 1982, its production at AZLK was minimized and unpack the motor car Moskvich terminated.
But why is this model that has расточенный engine pre-war Opel-Kadet, so long preserved in the production? The fact that she go on low-octane 72-m gasoline, which was much cheaper than 93-St. In addition, this gasoline was even drown in large fleets. Therefore, such a Muscovite more willing to buy, those who had access to the official fuel. Important was and тысячерублевая the difference in price . However, with the termination of the production of petrol A-72 meaning keep in production model with a low compression ratio had fallen away - instead it was launched in the production of rural modification of M-21406, оснащавшаяся дефорсированным engine UZAM-412Д capacity of 68 HP, working on low-octane gasoline A-76, as well as the front drum brakes (which enabled to apply the brake fluid FLC, not as deficient in the villages, as the Neva), reinforced springs and springs, rear towing eye, tyre with all-purpose tread pattern, the protection of crankcase. Later, the car can be equipped with and front disc brakes. Stay away from the population of 38-e Muscovites easily passed on 76-th gasoline. In 1980, was mastered the production of modification of Moscow-21403 with manual control, designed for disabled guests with limited mobility. It is interesting, that the organs of social security compensated for the disabled-veteran of the cost of only a basic model Zaporozhets, and the difference in price in Moscow (about 4 thousand rubles in the mid-eighties) had to pay for its own account.
However, as he recalled the former in those years one of the leading designers of the plant Igor Zaitsev.
It was planned that from 1973 to 1975 they will replace the conveyor of the existing model, therefore they were called samples series of 3-5. The machines were rude, out of date. In addition, it was obvious that the master on the modernized the production of a completely new model unreal - not enough neither the time nor the money. So we decided to do the modernization of the «four hundred eleven». Thus, a Moskvich-2140.
As a result, instead of development of truly progressive new models (prototypes series of 3-5 and in particular, a - C series) decision has been made (forced) to limit рестайлингом existing Moskvich-412, which the project was implemented in the form of M-2140.Therefore, the «Moskvich-2140» it is originally was not sufficiently competitive in the external markets. In addition, the race for the increase in production volumes at AZLK led to a significant drop in the quality of components, painting and Assembly, which became noticeable to consumers even on the domestic market, and the fact they just with the development of a new model.
As a result of a well-known on the world market brand Moskvich literally within a few months 1976-1977, has lost its competitive position and further restricted the export of «Moscow-2140» was available almost exclusively to the COMECON countries, as well as in the framework of the humanitarian supplies to the countries of the «third world».
The gradual saturation of the domestic car market of the USSR in the eighties thanks to the mass production of «Zhiguli», as well as the extremely high level of retail prices of cars while maintaining relatively low quality of Assembly of the family of M-2140 has led to a catastrophic drop in the demand for the «Muscovites». So, in 1984, 90 % of the plant's products remained at the sites of the finished product, that is «market funds» were not purchased by consumers.
As a result, despite the relatively mass production Moskvich-2140, in the «rating» of the preferences of Soviet consumers it was only on the last but one place, just a step above «Zaporozhets» - despite the fact that in total length and capacity of the engine he excelled VAZ-2101.
It is not surprising that the Park of the «Muscovites» began to rapidly decline already in the mid-nineties, for example, in Moscow after the year 2000 the average rate of reduction of Park of cars of this brand is 15 % per year (also in this situation, of course, strongly influenced by the shortage of spare parts and their high cost).


Description of design
Compared with the M-412, model 2140 received a streamlined body with a more modern design of the front and rear parts and new, meet the requirements of the safety of the mid-seventies, the lighting industry.
In addition, the «Moskvich-2140» was equipped with meeting international standards front disc brakes, staples which had two pairs of working cylinders, and vacuum.
A new salon with травмобезопасными panel and the steering wheel and the modern system of management bodies, as well as seats with head restraints. Provided for the decoration of the interior perforated leather substitute or the plush cloth, a variety of colors and their combinations (pure black, dark gray, with black, red raspberry, dark-green with malachite, and so on).System light-signalling replenished alarm; stop lamps and direction indicators day shone more brightly, but at night to prevent blinding of drivers behind-reaching machines - is weaker, the transition to the «night» mode comes automatically when you turn on outdoor lighting.
In 1976 a similar modernization were generalists and vans, received front fins, equipment of the interior and the braking system of the type «Moskvich-2140».


Modernization / Timeline production
In accordance with the acting industry the normal, рестайлинговый sedan «Moskvich» with the engine UZAM-412 received the index of «Moskvich-2140», the version with the engine M-408 marked as «Moskvich-2138».
Designate other versions also brought into line with Normal: with the engine M-408 - Moskvich-2136» (universal) and «Moskvich-2733» (van), which was previously models 426 and 433; with engine UZAM-412 - Moskvich-2137» (universal) and «Moskvich-2734» (van), which was previously models 427 434.
Since October 1978, was «rural» modification of M-21406, оснащавшаяся дефорсированным engine UZAM-412Д (68 HP), working on low-octane gasoline A-76, as well as the front drum brakes (which enabled to apply the brake fluid FLC, not as deficient in the villages, as «Neva»), reinforced springs and springs, rear towing eye, tyre with all-purpose tread pattern, the protection of crankcase. Later the car could be equipped with and front disc brakes. Outwardly, these machines were distinguished by the absence of decorative caps on wheels.
Since November of 1979 was mastered the production of modification of M-21403 with hand controls, intended for persons with limited mobility feet. Hand brake and clutch levers were on either side of the steering wheel. Is forced to release the wheel from the hands at their simultaneous pressing. «Zaporozhets» this shortcoming did not have, as most of these levers were pressed one hand. It is interesting, that the organs of social security compensated for the disabled-veteran of the cost of only a basic model of «Zaporozhets», and the difference in price with the «Muscovite» (about 4 thousand rubles in the mid-eighties) had to pay for its own account.
In 1981 the production of modification of M-2140-117 («Luxury») or Moskvich-1500 SL. The car received a new so - called «low» - the dashboard and other interior, the production of the Yugoslavian firm «Сатурнус» (Saturnus), as well as new rear lights, a more wide plastic bumpers (its massive like устанавливавшиеся on the version of European cars for the U.S. market and giving the car a few awkward) with chrome trim and moldings, as well Yugoslav production.Separate batch of cars of this modification for the first time in domestic practice, stained «metallic». It is Moskvich-1500SL in the ' 80s became the main export products of the AZLK, if not to count the Assembly sets of M-2140 for NRB, but of a special distribution outside markets of the countries of the CMEA not received.
on August 25, 1980, the Assembly line came down three-million-dollar car «Moskvich» - it was a machine model «2140,» and 17 September 1986, with conveyor came four-million car «Moskvich», this car was a Muscovite-1500 SL.
Engine M-408 already in the mid-70 was considered obsolete and low-power (50 HP), not providing sufficient dynamic qualities. So in 1982, its production at AZLK was minimized and unpack the engine of the car «Moskvich» is terminated.
In 1982, the «Moskvich-2140» has passed small modernization: at the front doors disappeared window, structure was modified bumpers, simplified exterior - deleted chrome moldings and nameplates, as well as finish chrome grille. In addition, a large factory emblem in the form of a shield in the grille was replaced by the terse inscription : "AZLK".
Production of the van M-2734 was closed in 1981 in connection with the distribution of a more practical model IZH-2715; universal M-2137 stopped to collect in 1985; the modification of the sedan - M-21406, M-21403 and M-2140-117 - in 1987; the basic version of the M-2140, with a view to accelerating the mass production of the new front-drive model Moskvich-2141 - from July 1988.


Technical characteristics
Dimensions, mm
length x width x height 4250x1550x1480
base 2400
The layout of the
front engine
the drive wheels rear
The body sedan
Maximum speed, km/h 142
The engine of the "Moskvich-412Э" (UZAM-412) or "Moskvich-412DE", gasoline, carburetor, in-line
the number of cylinders 4
working volume 1478 cm3
number of valves 8
the location of the upperpower, kW/HP 75/55 at 5800 rpm(M-412Э);68/50 at 5800 rpm(M-412DE)
A four-step gearbox
Suspension
front independent, spring
rear axle, the longitudinal springs
Brakes hydraulic, with vacuum
front disc
rear drum
Electrical Equipment 12 In
Tyre size 6.45-13 (165/70 R13)



Modification

A family of «1500»
Moskvich-2140 - base sedan family «1500». Made in 1976-1988 gg.;
Moskvich-2140Д is a modification of the saloon with the дефорсированным engine under the gasoline A-76. Particularly deficient modification due to the relative cheapness and greater prevalence of 76-octane gasoline (especially in the province);
Moskvich-214006(214007) - export modification;
Moskvich-2140-117(he Muscovite-2140SL) - version of «Lux». Made in 1981-1987 gg.;
Moskvich-214006(7)-117 - version of the «Lux», export modification;
Moskvich-2140-121 is a modification of the taxi, with дефорсированным engine under the gasoline A-76, meter and upholstered in leather. Made in 1982-1987 gg.;
Moskvich-21403 - the version with manual control for disabled guests. Made in 1980-1987 gg.
Moskvich-21406 - modification for the rural areas with дефорсированным engine, drum brakes all
wheels, reinforced leaf springs and towing eyelets. Made in 1979-1987 gg.;
Moskvich-21401 - modification for the medical service;
Moskvich-21402 - export version with the right wheel. Modification of M-214026 intended for moderate, and M-214027 for tropical climate;
Moskvich-2315 - commercial version with the body pick-up, forming small parties in 1984-1988, on the basis of the defective body sedan and wagon;
Moskvich-2137 - basic universal family «1500». Made in 1976-1985 gg.;
Moskvich-2734 - commercial van. Produced in the 1976-1983 gg.Moskvitch 1600 Rallye - rally modification, homologated in 1976 by the international group 2, class 8 (up to 1600 CC.). The main difference from the basic model, the maximum engine 412-2B (412Г) with the twin-shaft concrete восьмиклапанной cylinder head, the volume of 1.6 liters, with 130 HP., a fundamentally new transmission CP-9 or KP-10. The fact of the official homologation of this modification is very interesting is the fact that for a group of 2 омологировались serial machines with modifications, and printing омологируемых cars should be not less than 1000 pieces, but no engine with two camshafts, or transmission of the CP-9 and KP-10 production units have not been and will not be installed on production machines. On this machine Stasys Brundza in 1976, took part in the rally «1000 lakes» in Finland. Finish Брундзе failed as a result of the accident.
AZLK 1600 SL RALLYE - rally modification, homologated in 1983 by the international group of the A6 (up to 1600 CC.). The main difference from the basic model, the maximum engine volume of 1.6 liters, with a capacity of 145 HP. (used dual carburetors Weber 45DCOE), cat claw coupling inclusion, 2 shock absorbers on each wheel, front disc brakes with четерехпоршневыми супортами, front and rear stabilizer of transverse stability, on the rear axle of the car was set parallelogram watt. In the SL RALLYE Soviet racers participated in many international competitions, in particular, the Yugoslav rally «Сатурнус», being a stable place in the top ten of the cars which finished. In 1985, the rally «1000 lakes» in Finland, Valery Filimonov, пилотируя the car, took the 26-th place in the absolute qualification, and the third place in the class of cars with engine capacity of up to 1.6 liters.
In General, the type designation of the Muscovite 2140 of the following -
214000-000-412Э_ BB-where 2140000 this model (see above), 000/001 - unpack (varied finish (cloth/velour), the presence of фароочистки, taxi, luxury, then the code of the engine, BB - code carburetor.


A family of «1360»
Moskvich-2138 - base sedan family «1360». Made in 1976-1982 gg.;
Moskvich-21381 - modification for the medical service. Made in 1976-1981 gg.;
Moskvich-2136 - universal family «1360». from may 1976-1981 gg.;
Moskvich-2733 - commercial van. Made in 1976-1981 gg. 

Sources:
Entries archive
Поиск
Календарь
«  Октябрь 2017  »
ПнВтСрЧтПтСбВс
      1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
3031
Copyright MyCorp © 2017
Конструктор сайтов - uCoz