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KIM-10-50

KIM-10-50 - the first Soviet serial compact car, the basis of which the design was taken by the British «Ford Prefect» of 1939.

History
In December 1930 by decree of the all-Union tractor Association of plant became known as the «National Assembly plant named KIM.» In 1933, the plant became a branch of GAS and goes on Assembly of cars GAZ-A and GAZ-AA. In 1939, the plant becomes a crucial part of Глававтопрома and receives the name of «the Moscow automobile plant named after KIM.»
At this time, specially for the power plant KIM developed a compact car KIM-10 on the basis of the British «Ford Prefect». The project of the body is created from an artist-designer In. Бородским. According to his model in the United States have developed drawings of the body and produced stamps. In 1940 the plant started the production of this model. In parallel modifications have been developed KIM-10-51 convertible and KIM-10-52 - four-door sedan. KIM-10 was to become the first truly «national» Soviet car, however, the implementation of an ambitious plan of the country's leadership to ensure the majority of citizens of private machines of the Great Patriotic war interrupted with it the beginning of the release of KIM was minimized, and the plant was reoriented to military production. Appeared after the war, the successor to KIM - Moskvich-400 - has not become a truly massive.
In spite of the fact that KIM-10 originally planned as a mass, and therefore the cheapest car, his appearance was very advanced for that time. In particular, KIM-10 had a stylish exterior with doors opening to the car, and the hood аллигаторного type, wheel disks with spectacular выштамповкойand decorative caps, the windshield of the modern at the time the V-shaped design, advanced instrument panel with pointers oil level and temperature of water in the radiator, as well as watches and so on.
KIM-10-50 was to become the Soviet Volkswagen. In the plans of our leadership to the end of the third five-year plan (1938-1942), this car should have been 10 per cent of households, and by the end of the fourth, supposed to 1943-47 years, at its improved version had to ride for 80 percent of Soviet families. But the war interrupted these plans. However, shortly before the war, in may of 1941, the car entered in the free sale and the whole consignment of 500 copies was completely sold out. Today from this party survived only four copies, one of which you now see in this material.
By the end of the 1930-ies in the USSR it was announced that socialism is finally built. Life has become better, life has become merrier. If in 1929 - in the year of the beginning of the collectivization and industrialization - the average salary in the USSR was 75 roubles, that in 1940 it was 339 rubles.In addition, food prices were quite low, and the purchasing power of the ruble exceeded that of the U.S. dollar. So in the pockets of the population were the remnants of the old quarter, which for months and years turn into a decent sum of money. Neither bear the money in a savings Bank, or to buy on them further notes (in addition to the voluntary-compulsory) несзнательные citizens did not want to, and Gosplan had to pull out of their pockets the money for the needs of the Motherland.
It is for this early in 1940, someone from госплановских wise men and proposed to start production of a massive Soviet car. The idea was borrowed from the practice of the German national-socialism. There, in Germany, have been successfully carried out the idea to provide each family of simple folk автомобильчиком, the value of which does not exceed a thousand marks.
The 990 brands, which cost Volkswagen, were then 2100 Soviet rubles, while эмка cost in the USSR nine thousand. It is therefore not surprising that the first in the Soviet Union wanted to just copy the German car or buy for his license. However, the «vacuum cleaner» to the engine-воздушником, and, besides, located behind Stalin did not like, and then he presented the two English car. The first of them - Austin 7 - was quite cheap to produce. However, its construction and design was by that time already quite backward. The other same - Ford Perfect, produced by the British branch of the фордовской Corporation, was at the time the last word in the development of automobile technology, and although he didn't fit in двухтысячерублевый price limit, the choice of Stalin stopped on it. The only thing that he wanted to redo it, so it is to provide the body, which the Prefect was двухдверным, doors for the rear passengers.
To establish production was entrusted to the plant the name of KIM, located in the then still the Moscow textile workers. Called this plant was in honor of the Communist international Youth - the youth section of the then Communist international. The activity of the factory began in November 1930, and came to the Assembly of passenger cars and trucks Ford. Since 1933, the full power of earned the Gorky automobile plant, plant KIM becomes a branch of Gas and goes on Assembly of cars GAZ-A and GAZ-AA from the Gorky automotive kits. It is on this plant and fell choice of Gosplan.
Gorky designer Brodsky reworked the design of the Prefect, and the us firm BUDD were ordered by the body dies for this car.
The pilot batch of 500 cars, named KIM-10-50 was released to the 25th of April, 1941. Stamps for четырехдверных bodies still slow, and in the military parade attended cars in двухдверном version.
In several months, before the evacuation of the plant in October 1941, was produced staff modification of machines, with a simplified body and an open top. During 1941 it was planned to make 50 thousand cars. All in 1940-1941 he was released less than 1000 cars. In addition, in 1945, was released a 10 cars KIM 10-51, but already a car plant in the city of Ulyanovsk, from over from before the war-hit parts.

Design
The length of the car when 2385-millimeter wheelbase was 3960 mm; width - 1480 mm, and the height of -1 meter 65 centimeters. Track front and rear wheels was the same and equal to 1145 a millimeter. Thus, the Soviet version of the car was on 16 centimeters longer than the original British, 3.6 centimeters wider and four centimetres above. The length of the same wheelbase was higher than that of the prototype of the 185 millimetres. Up to 210 mm has increased, and ground clearance, which stood on the British model only equal to 139.7 mm.
The body is полунесущий, with a light frame. Suspension - dependent, on the transverse springs. Brake - mechanical rotary drum.
In addition, the engine with a lesser degree of compression it was easier to get a handle, because the capacity of the 6-volt battery sufficed only for three-four engine.
The KIM-10 for the first time in the domestic automotive industry found the use of the hood аллигаторного type instead of the common then hoods with lifting walls.
Salon subcompact was equipped with a clock and a mechanism for regulating the installation of the front seats - both, is found only in the cars of the highest class. The body of the KIM-10 had a lot of innovations. He'd been missing his outdoor trip, as in the other cars. The windshield was not flat, and consisted of two parts, located at an angle, design, later adopted in the post-war cars. Among other novelties must be called thin-walled and two-layer bearings of the crankshaft of the engine, the centrifugal automatic ignition advance, wiper, working under the influence of discharge in the air-intake manifold of the engine.


Technical characteristics
Dimensions, mm
length x width x height 3943x1430x1600
base 2386
The layout of the
front engine
the drive wheels rear
The body of the two-door sedan
Maximum speed, km/h 90
The engine KIM-10, gasoline, carburetor, in-line
the number of cylinders 4
working volume 1172 cm3
number of valves 8
the location of the lower
power, HP/kW 30/22 at 4000 rpm
Gearbox, the three-stage
Suspension
front axle, the transverse springs
rear axle, the transverse springs
Mechanical brake
front drum
rear drum
Electrical Equipment Of 6 In
Tyre size 5.00-16 

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