Soviet passenger car of small Germany, produced at the Plant of small cars in
Moscow (ZMA, later - МЗМА) from December 1946 to 1954.
Originally was a
full analogue of a car Opel cadet K38, produced in 1937-1940 years in Germany
at the German branch Opel American concern General Motors, restored after the
war, on the basis taken for the reparation of the copies of the documentation
Moskvich-401 - an
enhanced version, выпускавшаяся
from 1954 to 1956.
Was issued 216 006
sedans and 17 742 convertible. The price of the car was 8000 RUB.
BackgroundThe production of
passenger cars in the Soviet Union began in the thirties, with models of the
medium and big, the Gorky plant and Moscow named after Stalin. It was
relatively large cars with powerful engines of a large working volume.
They are widely
used in the national economy of the country, in the taxi (including ZIS),
received on the distribution or acquired various state institutions, but in the
broad retail sales have never been. A number of passenger cars, however, all
the same was received by the citizens in the form of valuable gifts for
different kinds of services (for example, in Moscow in the beginning of 1937
were subject to forced exchange of the «Emka» with an additional charge on
credit including about 1 000 private GAS-AND to go to the peripheral areas) or,
for example, as a win in the гослотерее - and, in any case, as one of the
prizes was even the luxurious Executive ZIS-101, as well as purchased under
special permits - in particular, «Эмка» cost 9 thousand rubles.
One way or another,
to the end of the thirties, at the background of the ongoing by the time of
mass motorization in the countries of the West, the country's leadership began
to understand, that only public transport will not be able to fully provide for
the needs of society. In addition, the car was considered as a good means of
motivation and encouragement. Thus arose the interest to create relatively
accessible and affordable in the production of «compact» car, which was
designed primarily for sale to the public for personal use, which coincided
with the accumulation by the time of the Russian industry necessary for mass
production of this type of car-building (earlier drafts of «up», such какНАМИ-1 and NATI-2, could not be
implemented as of times because of the absence in those years, the necessary
production capacity and experience of the mass serial production of motor
transport).Even in the
prewar years, the Moscow plant of the international Communist youth (KIM) was
using the number of foreign analogues developed a «compact» KIM-10. The main
prototype was inexpensive, but is fairly modern and technological in mass
production, the British model of Ford Prefect. Design, former quite modern for
subcompact 1940, was formed from The designer's. Brodsky.
In 1940, began малосерийное production KIM-10-50 (two-door
sedan) and KIM-10-51 (two-door convertible, at different terminology -
Phaeton). Later was developed KIM-10-52 - version with a body «four-door sedan,
a more practical in Soviet conditions, which serially was never released.
It was released a
total of about 450 copies of all the options KIM-10. Opening in may in the sale
of the party was sold out to the beginning of the war. In the years of the war
the plant was rerouted to the production of more relevant in times of war
production.History of creationDuring and after
the Second world war in the USSR in mass quantities (about 50 thousand pieces)
were captured cars, mainly of German production. Many of them were one way or
another in the hands of individual owners. Began and reparations deliveries of
new cars, assembled in the Soviet zone of occupation - first of all BMW models
321 and BMW 340, gathered at the enterprise «Автовело» (former factory BMW) in Eisenach
(later it was renamed in EMW, in order to avoid conflicts with the firm BMW).
Thus, the emergence
of massive amounts of private vehicles has become in the post-war years
spontaneously fait accompli.
captured fleet in the conditions of bad roads, lack of spare parts and the
qualified repair quickly wear.
Hence the urgent
need for the establishment of mass production of its Soviet-vehicle, intended
for sale in individual use and the most suitable for use in domestic road
It is quite
logical, that the prototype of it was decided to search among the German models
- in addition to the traditionally high technical level of the German aircraft,
the impact and the fact that they were in those years are quite common in the
USSR, and many of their models were well familiar to drivers and mechanics, and
on some models, made in East Germany, there were production documentation and
even accessories for the production.
options. For example, offered widespread in pre-war Germany and the post-war
USSR model DKW F8, it's a simple design, low cost in production and a very ремонтопригодная, with a predominantly wooden and
plywood body (in the USSR abbreviation of DHQ jokingly interpreted as a
«tree-glue-water») in the light of the bearing frame and with two-engine.However,
concerns have been raised about the low durability of wooden body in the
conditions of the climate of the greater part of the territory of the USSR, and
in addition - DHQ had front-wheel drive, which was assessed very negatively
from the point of view of the vehicles, the only двухдверные body and technically imperfect,
relatively guzzler two-stroke engine insufficient capacity.
production of DKW F8 and the modernized model F9 was started in East Germany,
and later the modernization of the line of cars has led to the appearance of
the light of the famous «Trabant» and a few less well-known «Wartburg».
choice fell on the model of Opel cadet K38 - relatively fresh, which was in
production since 1937, a well-established for mass mass serial production, well
proved itself in the domestic road conditions, with a sufficiently strong
bearing all-metal body and relatively powerful (1074 cm3, 23 HP.) four-stroke
As a model of «Кадетт» produced in November, 1936 (factory
designation of the model - 11234). In late 1937, it was modernized - externally
this resulted in the emergence of a new semi-circular mask radiator instead of
the earlier of the flat and other small differences, after which he labeled «К38». For those years, it was a
perfect technically, durable and comfortable car. There were versions with
different types of body: - two - and four-door sedans (according to the terminology
of limousines), a two-door кабриолимузин.
At the same time
with the basic К38 also
produced its cheaper, a simplified version of the - KJ38 (J - «Junior»), who
mainly dependent front suspension, separate from the body frame, the lack of
rear bumper, and a simplified finish, and Opel Olympia - a more perfect model,
with the same body (except for the hood, which was аллигаторного type, opening the forward - instead
of used to the side of the «Кадетта»), but equipped with more modern верхнеклапанным (OHV) engine displacement 1488 cm3
and a power of 37 HP.
For release in the
USSR was selected Opel cadet K38, and in one of the most expensive and
therefore quite rare variant - четырехдверном and with independent front
suspension; in some sources indicate, with reference to the Resolution of the
GKO № 9905 from 26 August 1945 «On the organization of the production of the МЗМА vehicle Opel-Kadet To-38 in its
present form», that the choice of this modification was carried out personally
by Joseph Stalin, he was introduced ban on the introduction of any changes in
in the sources varies.
Some of them, such
as Yuri Dolmatovsky in the book «I need a car, reported that the car was
produced entirely or almost entirely on the equipment and documentation
administration of the plant «Opel» in Рюссельхайме (by the way, who was in the American
occupation zone) and assembled in the USSR.The
historian of the automotive industry lion Шугуров reports in his book «the Cars of
Russia and the USSR», the technical documentation on the car was gone, and it
had to be started on ready-made samples, as well as individual surviving
elements of the technological equipment - primarily for the manufacture of
doors, the most complicated in the production of the element body.
In the memories of
some of the workers of the plant, заставших the preparation of the first issue
of «Moskvich» for example Alexander Fedorovich Andronova (chief designer AZLK
over the years from 1949 to the mid 70-ies), it is stated that the Department
of the chief designer was preparing drawings independently, and production
tooling supplied GAS, ZIS and other Soviet enterprises.
In General, given
the confusion of the last war and the first post-war years, it can well be
assumed that the documentation and part of equipment for shot with production
still in 1940 the car were so or otherwise lost or destroyed, the more the
plant in Рюссельхайме
in the years of the war, the details of the issue of aircraft engines and has
Either way, the
modern sources based on substantial documentary evidence restore events of
those years as follows.
After the end of
the war the plant Opel in Рюссельсхайме was in the American zone of
occupation. However, according to the Berlin conference in the summer of 1945
the Soviet Union as part of the reparations received the right to the fourth
part of the whole remaining in the West of Germany industrial equipment,
including - to and from the Opel factory in Рюссельхайме.
de-facto Opel plant at that time lay in ruins: cars there have not been
produced since 1940, due to the loading of military products, like aircraft
engines for the bombers, and in August 1944, he was subjected to a large-scale
bombing of the Federal aviation. As a result of export there was practically
nothing. We managed to find only a snap-in for the manufacture of some
components of the chassis and двухдверного variant of the body.
significant part of the lost documentation and equipment for the production of
been recreated, and the works were produced in Germany by order of the Soviet
military administration (Smad) forces mixed labour collectives, composed of
seconded Soviet and volunteers of the German specialists, who worked in the
created after the war of design bureaus.
The body of the воссоздавало KB in the city Шварценберге, which employed 83 German specialist
under the direction of the Soviet engineer On. In. Дыбова. In it and were in 1945-1946 years
of the reconstructed drawings and documentation, have been established wooden
«muster-model» (the master-model) and templates for manufacturing of stamps.
Work on reconstruction of power unit was carried out in Berlin, also German
experts in the amount of more than 180 (including six professors) under the
guidance of Professor MAMI IN. And. Soroko-Novitsky. Options with wooden bodies
of «van» and «universal» were developed in the KB on the basis of former plants
of the company Auto Union in Chemnitz, Цшопау and Zwickau, before the war,
producing wooden bodies for car DKW and had a great experience in their design
according to this version of the car in essence was developed to a large extent
-- though as a copy of the pre-war «Cadet». Subsequently involved in the
reconstruction of the automobile cluster munitions were disbanded, and the
information did not appear in print until very recently.
It should also be
noted that in the West, the production of «Cadet» resumed after the war was
not, but was it more perfect version - Opel Olympia OL38. Thus, one can assume
that the documentation and equipment are still preserved, either were also
Also, even before
the war in France on the basis of the models of the cadet and Olympia, although
with a much lower volume of borrowing, was created his own version of the
car-Renault Juvaquatre, выпускавшаяся with a break in the 1937-1960 years.
One way or another,
already on December 4, 1946, a year and a half after the start of preparation
of production, the Plant of Small Cars (ZMA, so after the war was renamed the
former KIM) issued the first copy of the new model, which received the name of
«Moskvich-400». Or, if fully follow the original system of nomenclature those
years, " Moskvich-400-420 g»: the first was the number of the engine, the
second - of the body.
In those years,
this car, as a rule, simply called «Muscovite», as other «Muscovites» then was
Soon after the
sedan appeared wooden wagons «Moskvich-400-422» (1949-1956), convertibles
and of the chassis with cab «Moskvich-400-420Б» (1954), in which were established a
variety of cargo body, made bodywork plant Минпищепрома in Moscow.
It is curious, that
the state acceptance tests of the car went through a «retroactive» - only in 1949,
already in the course of its serial production.
In 1947, the 800
anniversary of Moscow ZMA issued the «jubilee» party of cars, which on the left
hood memorial sign in the form of a ancient shield.
There was also the
medical version of 420М, which was driving over the windscreen, washable
upholstery of interior and a set of medical equipment inside.In may
1951, appeared upgraded gearbox with a more convenient shift lever on the
In 1954 had a more
powerful engine model - 401 (26 h.p.). Accordingly, changed the designation of
the car - now the base sedan called the «Moskvich-401-420».
The production of
the «Muscovites» grew rapidly: 10-thousandth car descended from the conveyor in
1950, and soon it has already reached the annual output of 35 000 - 50 000
pieces. Cars go on sale at the price of 8 000 roubles («Moskvich-401» - 9 000;
«Victory» GAZ M-20 has cost 16 000, «ZIM» GAZ-M-12 - 40 000 rubles; the average
salary in the national economy of the USSR in 1950, was 601 of the ruble). The
model was not very popular, but already in the early fifties, the demand for
cars has grown substantially, and the «Muscovites» and «Victory» had already
been formed a queue of those wishing to buy them («ZIM» was not in demand
because of the extremely high prices, and although because of this, he was in
free sale, real sold the car for personal use, there was very little).Technical
and «-401/420» (data for «Moskvich-401» given in parentheses)
Carrying the body,
4×2: 4-seater 4-door sedan 420, 4-door convertible 420А, 3-door wooden wagon 422, 2-door
pickup truck 420Б, 2-door
all-metal wagon 420Б, 2-door
wagon with a separate body 420Б (as IZH-2715), sanitary 420М, the aerodrome starting the engine
APA-7 (chassis 400-420Э),
experimental 5 doors wooden wagon 421.
Capacity: 23 (26)
HP 3600 (4000) rpm, 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, 1074 cm3. Compression ratio:
5,8(6,2):1. Cylinder diameter/ piston stroke: 67,5/75 mm. The gap between the
pusher and the core of the valve: - intake - of-0.15 - 0.17 mm, outlet - 0,20 -
Order of work of
the cylinder: Ah 1-3-4-2
with falling stream.
6B, battery capacity - 65 A/h.
Type and power of
the generator: Г28, 100W.
Type and capacity
of starter: ARTICLE 28; 0,6 HP.
Type of spark plug:
AT-11/10A, JV. М14х1,25; the gap between the electrodes:
0.60 - 0.70 mm.
Length: 3 855 mm,
width: 1 400 mm, height: 1 545 mm, base: 2 340 mm, height: 190 mm under both
The track of the
front wheels: 1 105 mm;
The convergence of
wheels: 1.5-2.5 mm; the collapse of the wheels: 42'; the angle of inclination
of rotary steering sideways: 7 degrees; forward: 0 degrees.Rear track:
1 170 mm.
Angles of entry:
front 35 degrees, rear - 23 degrees.
single-disk dry. Free running of a pedal of coupling: 18-24 mm.
3-speed + 1 rear.
Number of gears : :
I - of 3.56, II - 1.73 a, III - 1,00, reverse - 4.44 carats.
Final drive ratio:
5,14, a pair of bevel gears with screw teeth.
Front suspension: a
type of «Дюбонне»,
the independent, шкворневая,
2 hydraulic shock absorber unilateral actions.
Rear suspension: on
two longitudinal semi-elliptical springs, 2 hydraulic shock absorber unilateral
brakes on all wheels.
load): 845 (855) kg.
Maximum speed with
full load by road: 90 km/h.
Tire size: 4,50x16
or 5,00x16 inches.
(bar): front - 2,00 or 1.75, rear - 2,30 or 2.00.
Fuel tank capacity:
31 l. Gasoline - A-66. Fuel consumption: at 9.0 l/100 km.
capacity: 6,0 l.
The capacity of the
oil Carter: motor - 2.7 l (with oil filter - 3.3 l); gearbox - 0,4 l; the
differential - 0.9 l.Basic modificationMoskvich-400-420 g
(1946-1953) - four-door sedan;
Moskvich-400-420А (1949-1954 she) is a four-door кабриолимузин (body with an open top, but
preserves the side and scope of the doors with glass);
Moskvich-400-420Б - model with manual control for
persons with disabilities;
(1948-1956) - a truck with a wooden frame of the body;
Moskvich-400-420К - chassis for mounting of various
Moskvich-400-420М - for home health care, from
different 400-420 g only markings;
(1954-1956) - advanced sedan;
Moskvich-401-420Б - modernized a modification of the
(1954-1956) - деревометаллический the van;
Just released: 216
006 sedans, 17 742 convertible, 11 129 vans, respectively 422 and 2 562 pickup
trucks and vans 420Б.
It is curious, that
on the basis of the first «Moskvich» one time produced кабриолимузины - according to the German model,
there is such a body was used in the pre-war years the popularity and there
were in the model the rows of many manufacturers, including Opel, and after the
war are often issued in the form of conversion of serial cars forces small body
Atelier. However, the original кабриолимузин Opel cadet had two doors, and the
Soviet was designed anew for on the basis of the four-door sedan.However, in
spite of the efforts to stimulate demand unprecedented for post-war years, the
reduction of the retail value of the open of the body compared to the closed
(in fact cabriolet on the basis of the private car, especially with the
monocoque body, costs in the production of much more expensive, and therefore
the cost of such car is always higher than that of similar to a closed body),
the Soviet motorists in no hurry to acquire convertibles in view of their
obvious impracticality in the climate of much of the country is a relatively
high demand for them was only in the southern republics of the Union.
were subsequently converted into ordinary closed vehicle by welding of the
roof. Surprisingly, but in recent years there has been strictly opposite trend
- in the remaining conventional «Muscovites» enterprising traders cut down the
roof in order to pass them off as the surviving кабриолимузины. In fact, in the present time of
complete factory cabriolets «Moskvich» around the world, there are units.Experienced optionsMoskvich-400-421
(1948-1950) - wagon, made a few experienced copies.
Moskvich-Э403-424 (1949) - the pilot sedan,
built a small test of the party. Different modified design, the hood аллигаторного type. The engine is mounted
Moskvich-403 (not to be confused with the serial «Muscovite-403»the end of the
1950-s - early 1960-ies).
Pick - up soon
after the release of 400-th family directly on МЗМА, perhaps, on the chassis of
produced several versions of pickup trucks (there were not less than three
species, including one that is designed to work with a trailer). However, in a
series he did not go. According to some information, this model was to get the
index of "420Б",
but, in view of the refusal of the plans of its serial production, the index of
"B" was subsequently assigned a version with manual control.
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